Copernicus is the largest crater on the moon

Big Bang 8, textbook

Worldviews before 1905 38 RG 8.1 / G 8.1 Competence Area Theory of Relativity 5 a perfectly normal planet, and the Inquisition was merciless at that time. It was not until the year of his death in 1543 that he had the courage to publish his ideas. Fig. 38.5: The apparent star rotation About half a century later, G ALILEO G ALILEI was one of the most ardent advocates of the heliocentric worldview. He improved the telescope, invented around 1600, and observed the sky. Among other things, he discovered that four moons orbit Jupiter (Fig. 38.6). That didn't fit with the geocentric view of the world, in which all celestial bodies move around the earth. He also discovered that the moon was by no means a perfect sphere. Info: The lunar craters of Galileo Fig. 38.6: The four largest moons of Jupiter are called Galilean moons (F3). Today we know more than 79 moons of Jupiter (as of 2019). These discoveries encouraged Galileo to speak openly about his views. But the Vatican began to act against it. The geocentric view of the world was declared the official church doctrine and the book of Copernicus was added to the index. Before the Inquisition, Galileo had to declare in penitent clothing and on his knees that he had “made a mistake” and that the earth was still in the middle of the universe. His later defiant saying “And it does move!” May never have been used like that, but it is still legendary. Galileo had to spend the last years of his life under house arrest - at that time no honey licking. Nevertheless, the triumphant advance of the heliocentric worldview could no longer be stopped. Because Copernicus set this idea in motion, one speaks of the Copernican Turn (F6). The lunar craters of Galileo In Galileo's time it was still believed that all celestial objects are perfect spheres. This view went back to A RISTOTELES. G ALILEO could however observe through his telescope that the shadow border on the crescent moon was very irregular (Fig. 38.7). From this he correctly concluded that the surface of the moon must be uneven. The view of the perfect spherical shape of all celestial bodies was no longer tenable (F3). Fig. 38.7: Galileo's drawing of the moon (a) and a photo (b). He overestimated the size of the craters - despite the fact that the telescope optics were poor at the time, it was an enormous achievement. i But there was apparently something wrong with the heliocentric view of the world, because the planetary positions did not exactly match the prediction. J OHANNES K EPLER (Chapter 9.3, “Big Bang 5”) evaluated planetary data that astronomers had collected without a telescope for decades before him. And he came to the conclusion that the planets do not move around the sun in circles, as assumed, but in ellipses (Fig. 38.8). He published his first two laws in 1609. This year is considered to be the beginning of modern astronomy. Fig. 38.8: Kepler determined the earth's orbit by aiming for Mars every 687 days, which is then always in the same place (a). He was able to determine the earth's orbit precisely by measuring several times (b). He found the orbit of Mars in a similar way. Fig. 38.9: Trajectories at different launch speeds. Objects at around 8 km / s fall parallel to the surface (Newton's original drawing). For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv

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