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The philosophy of the stoa

The name “Stoa” is derived from the hall in which the devotees of this school gathered. The Philosophers are divided into older, middle and younger stoa.
The school was founded around 300 B.C.E. founded by Zenon from Kition (Kition was a city empire on the south coast of Cyprus) in Cyprus, who was a student of the Kynikers Krates, the Megarikers Stilpon and the academic Xenocrates. He was revered for his character and after his suicide in 262 B.C. Was Kleanthes out Assos (Assos, also known as Behramkale or Behram for short, is a small historically rich town in the Ayvacık district of Çanakkale Province, Turkey) his successor, who is also stricter due to his rare lack of need, willpower moral and religiousness excels. He wrote the first surviving religious hymns typical of the Stoa. After his death by voluntary Fast 233 BC Wrote one of his numerous students, Arat von Soloi in Cilicia (In ancient times, Cilicia was the southern coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political unit of the Hittite Time until that Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the Late Byzantine Empire), the following anthem of Zeus, later also quoted by Paul: “This is how some of your poets said that we belong to his generation.” Which is probably importantmost representative of the older Stoa, who because of

Chrysipp is from Soloi (Soli or Soloi is a ancientgreek City on the island of Cyprus, southwest of Morphou and on the coast in Gulf of Morphou located and dates from the 6th century BC. BC) (died approx. 208 BC). The middle stoa with its main representatives Panaitios and Poseidoni-os fills the second and first centuries B.C.E. Panaitios (died 110 B.C.E.) directed the school in Athens (Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece) from 129, after a long stay in Rome, where he met Scipio Africanus (Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder and Scipio the Great was a Roman general and later consul, often viewed as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time) Mi-nor, Lälius and the high priest Mucius Scävola, among others. Since then the philosophy just one of the requirements for high education in Rome (ancient Rome was originally an 8th century BC Italian settlement that grew into the city of Rome and the empire it ruled over and the widespread civilization that the empire developed, gave its name). The stoa was literally made to measure for the Romans. Cicero made extensive use of the writings of Pa-naitio on do and act, serenity and the providence and especially his writings on duties (in “De officiis (De Officiis is a treatise by Marcus Tullius Cicero which is divided into three books) in which Cicero presents his idea of ​​the best way to live, conduct yourself and honor moral obligations explained) ”). The Poseidonios of Apamea (Posidonius “of Apamea” or “of Rhodes”, was a Greek stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher from Apamea, Syria) (died 51 BCE).), Living on Rhodes, among whose audience were Cicero and Pompey, is after Democritus (Democritus was an influential ancient Greek presocratic philosopher who is remembered today primarily for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe) and Aristotle (Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist who was born in the town of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern edge of Classical Greece) the last polyhistor (polymath) Greece (Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period in Greek history from the 12th to 9th centuries BC to the end of the ancient world). His influence on posterity is great, so that he, for example, of Julian the apostate and bishop Nemesios is quoted. There are three important men in the younger stoa. So Sene-ca, who died in 65 at the request of his pupil Nero. His writings include the “Naturales Qüstio-nes” (“Scientific Questions”), treatises on gentleness, well-being and anger, and the 20 books of moral letters. The second is the freed slave Epictetus (died 138), from which the “Handbook of Morals” is taken, and the third, Marc Aurel (died 180), from which the “self-observations”, aphorisms and diary pages, partly in the field in which his high, noble demeanor, which is conspicuous for the Stoa, is expressed.
The Stoics define philosophy as the science of divine and human things and divide it into logic, physics, and ethics.
logic
Logic (logic, originally meaning “the word” or “what is said”, is generally viewed as a systematic study of the form of arguments) is not just a formal science (formal sciences are disciplines that deal with formal systems like the logic deal with mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, information theory, game theory, systems theory, Decision theory and theoretical linguistics), but also epistemological Problems, whereby the question of the origin of the knowledge now comes first. Here is the stoa like that cynicism the sensualism obligated (sensualism is the persistent or exaggerated pursuit of sensual pleasures and interests), i.e. that the soul cannot be seen as previously described (“a priori (The Latin phrases a priori and a posteriori are philosophical art terms popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy)”), but as a kind of empty table that is only filled by the contents of sensory perception (perception is the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment). What comes to mind are just ideas, and the intellect also has no intangible content, but only changes his ideas, expands them and brings them together. The sense of imagination and recognition lies in the picture, where subject and object are presupposed, so that the object of knowledge is represented in its self as an imprint, so to speak as a soul. A truth check is carried out to ensure that the archetype matches the image. A truth criterion is catalepsy (catalepsy is a nervous state that is characterized by muscle stiffness and a fixation of the posture independent of external stimuli and reduced sensitivity to pain), i.e. the quality of ideas that can no longer be resisted. Stoic epistemology says that catapletic ideas have evidence. This term appears in both Stoic and Epicurean (Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based on the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, who lived around 307 BC. Was founded) Epistemology (epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with the theory of knowledge) and is present under the following conditions: One must be convinced that the sense organs are in a normal state, that the spatial and The temporal distance between the perceiving object and the perceiving subject is not too great, that the act of perception has been thought up and thought through long enough, that there is no disruptive medium between subject and object, and that similar own and other perceptions have come to the same result. So one can no longer contradict an idea from which it emerges that the Stoa still knows the will in the realm of knowledge. The human is not a purely thinking, completely objective being, but it must be taken into account that will and desire also come into play.
physics
Stoic physics deals with the big metaphysical questions, for example where materialism and pantheism are characteristic. Materialism is expressed in the meaning of being. The essence of being is as much as physicality, with the expanded being the essence that underlies all being. The second side of being is the force that finds itself as living force where there is breath, warmth and there is fire. Life there is not yet exhausted, as in the dead body, but it still has its tension. This hylozoic interpretation of being is based on a simple observation of the living, whereby the power is always given by breath, warmth and tension. Through the concept of power in the sense of life, the Stoa does not make an essential breakthrough through being, since there are no layers of being lying next to one another, but power can be found everywhere, so that the areas of being differ from one another only in degrees: In the In inorganic nature the pneuma is only present, in the plant world it reaches the stage of growth, in the animal world it already appears as soul and in man finally as reason. In principle, however, the pneuma is present everywhere and only represents another side of the physical, what the Essence gives it a monoistic character. So everything is matter, including the so-called life force. Pantheism (pantheism is the belief that all reality is identical with divinity, or that everything forms an all-embracing, immanent God) arises in the question of the ultimate reason for being. The Stoic knows this question very well, but refuses to transcend the search for such a reason; Pliny quotes: “It is utter madness to want to leave the world and the cosmos to study from the outside as if everything inside was already sufficiently known. So the ground of the world lies in itself, for the world is eternal, immeasurable, and so infinite that it is rich enough to explain itself. That is why the Stoics also have an intrinsic one Explanatory principle for the world and the world process. Their primal force, also called primal enemy, primal pneuma and world soul (according to several systems of thought, the world soul is an inner connection between all living beings on the planet that relates to our world, similar to the soul with the human body is connected), is at the same time world understanding (“Logos”), world law (“Nomos”), “Lex naturalis”), Foresight (“Pronoia” (The Pronoia was a system that included individuals and institutions of the late Eastern Roman Empire dedicated income streams granted) "," Providentia ") and fate (“Home Army (The Home Army was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland led by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the second worldwar was occupied) “,“ Fatum ”). This forms that tissue to Norms and laws and sets the movement in motion. The world reason contains the eternal thoughts for all that is to come, so that their ideas are the foundation of the future, with the whole event coming into strict order, even in the exaggerated form of a return of all things, as the event takes place in great cycles. At the end of a period of events, a world fire will extinguish everything that has become and restore it to the original in an enormous way Dimensions of fiery haze give back, which it then frees from itself again; Quote: “Then there will be another Socrates (Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher who is considered one of the founders of Western philosophy) and one Plato give, and every single person will arise anew with the same friends and citizens… ”. However, this recovery does not take place just once, but infinitely often. Worldly reason and providence, however, are not the thoughts and will of a free, personal spirit, but only the order of the formation and movement of the material itself, the infinite line of causes (“series implexa causarum”). The material is the ultimate, and so it remains materialism (materialism is a form of philosophical monism in which the matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all phenomena, including mental phenomena and consciousness, are results of material interactions). Rationes seminales (Rationes seminales, differently translated as germinal or causal principles, primordial reasons, original factors, promising reasons or virtues, or seed-like principles, is a theological theory about the origin of species) ”are also material causes, not ideas. Real ideas are a distant goal, and in the future they are on the way to development and that rushes towards them. The stoic “rational seeds”, on the other hand, are at the beginning of development and do not form an ideal telos (a telos is an end or an end, in a sense rather restricted by philosophers like Aristotle), but are physical causes of a material nature within the general set of causes; a bond in the biological sense is also a physical cause. All causes of the Stoics are material. The primal force is called Zeus and means divine, because God, reason, fate and nature are one and the same, because when the world establishes itself, then it fulfills the place of God and is itself God. Despite this reinterpretation of the “fanum” into a “profanum” there is a stoic religiosity; Quote: “The cosmos and what we call the sky by another name, through the rotation of which the universe becomes alive existence has to be regarded as God, eternal, holy, immeasurable, never created, never perishable…. ”. However, the many personal names used for deity in these hymns, chiefly from Homer (Homer is the name given by the ancients Greeks the semi-legendary author the Iliad and the Odyssey is attributed to two epic poems which are the central works of the Greek literature are) are bare Metaphors and cannot hide the fact that the religious feeling of Stoics there is a sense of nature as its god remains the universe.
ethics ethics
The ethics of the Stoics, through which they have become best known, presuppose a number of views about the psychic life of man, which are actually not psychology are to be assigned, but rather represent the anthropological-dogmatic basis of stoic morality. So it is first and foremost a fundamental statement that man has both a soul and a body. On the one hand, it is this soul that gives people self-movement and thus life. It can also be part of the three-sided separation of body, soul and reason or it can only mean the “leading part of the soul”, namely reason. It is also the collective term for these functions in their entirety and in their interaction. In any case, the soul always means “Pneuma (Pneuma is an ancient Greek word for“ breath ”, and in the religious context for“ spirit ”or“ soul ”)” and should as such be a composition of air and fire with which it is a body, although it is not localized in a particular part of the body, but should penetrate the whole body; only in exceptional cases is it transferred into the heart or, insofar as it is a soul of reason, into the head. So there is a certain fluctuation in the Stoa in relation to the soul, since on the one hand it is something material, but on the other hand it is not either; on the one hand it should be sensuality, on the other hand spirit; on the other hand it is divided into parts, while on the other hand it is a unit; it is essentially different from the body, but nevertheless it should give it life and thus a living unity. But it is also fundamental to the mooral of the Stoa that the soul of reason rules in man, which is why its name is “guiding soul”.
The core of the stoic anthropology is the exploration of impulses (“impetus”). On the instinct, which actually belongs to the sensual soul, body, sensuality and reason come together. Through sensation, the person receives ideas from the body that automatically and spontaneously trigger instincts, which is why the instinct a suffering that is an "af-fect". It becomes exaggerated when it is no longer accompanied and controlled by reason. So reason is also involved in the urge, the Stoics hold it Affects sometimes even for primordial; thus Zeno allowed the affects to happen in response to the judgments; Chrysippus even identified them with them. When reason now controls the impulse, so that the movements of the soul are ordered and the human being is thus an image of the macrocosm, then one speaks of “will”, which is a rational impulse.But when the leading part of the soul fails and the drive is left to its own devices, the opposite of reason arises, namely madness. Such a delusion, like pain, fear, desire or pleasure, is always a misunderstanding and a falsehood, whereby a fresh, ill-considered impression leads to these wrong judgments, which is why passion is also called “fresh delusion”. So is pain a fresh one illusion about the presence of an evil, lust a fresh delusion about the presence of a good. So the narrowness of the eye has to be inflated to see the objective truth. Reason can accomplish this task in two different ways. On the one hand, it has to gain time, the fresh one madness to fade and thus to take away his strength, as Seneca explains in his work “De ira” (“On anger”): “The best remedy against anger is time”. Then one has to start deleting the wrong ideas in order to highlight the real facts after eliminating those broken parts. Marc Aurel demands literally: “Destroy the imagination”, because only in this way can the peace of the heart be found again, because it can only be prejudices and ideas that rob the peace of mind. This is how one can understand Epictetus, who wrote: “It is not the things themselves that confuse people, but rather their views on things. Death itself is not terrible, nor did the Socra-tes appear so, but the idea of ​​death is. The wise man is above these things because he is ruled exclusively by reason, which makes man independent, free, objective and true. The emotions in the sense of passion are opposed to the noble emotions: Desire is the right will, which is either benevolence or satisfaction; Fear is caution divided into awe and chastity; Lust is pure joy that arises from the awareness of virtuous life. Here it becomes particularly clear how much stoic psychology is oriented towards ethical interests, especially since this literally appears as a doctrine of virtues.
In this context, the question of the immortality of the soul (in many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions the soul is the incorporeal essence of a living being) is also discussed, since at least the rational part of the soul always appeared as something eternal and divine. Because of its commitment to materialism, however, Stoa has to take a different path here. According to Zeno, most of the soul's mass is perishable, while reason, as the finest matter, is said to be immortal. In addition, there is no individual immortality in Epictetus and Marc Aurel, while Po-seionios takes up the Platonic proof of immortality, which is typical of syncretism (syncretism is the combination of different beliefs while practices of different schools of thought are mixed with one another), which is partly in the Stoa is present, and with Seneca, in turn, immortality is almost a fundamental dogma of his teaching: “After the soul, which purifies itself and shakes off the defects and pains inherent in mortal life, dwells on us for a short time, it rises to the Heights of the universe and hovers among the blessed spirits. They were welcomed by a holy flock. "
Particularly noteworthy in Stoic ethics is the concept of natural law and the associated ideal of humanity. The positive set by states and governments law (Positive laws are man-made laws that oblige or specify an action) is neither the only nor the almighty law. Rather, its validity is based on an unwritten law (Unwritten Law is an American rock band formed in Poway, California, in 1990. They released seven full-length studio albums and toured internationally, including appearances on the Warped Tour) that is forever is and at the same time a guideline for all positive thinking in general, the law of nature, which is nothing other than the general law of the world, which is identical with the world view. The belief in this is one of the unshakable dogmas of the Stoa. Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, public speaker, political theorist, consul and constitutional lawyer) and Philodem repeated in the same sense what the founders of the school had already established: “That Law of nature is a divine law and as such has the power to regulate what is right and what is wrong. ”Chrysipp says similarly:“ We call Zeus, the common nature of everything, fate, necessity; and that is also justice and justice, unity and peace. "All human laws feed on the one divine", as did Plato (Plato was a philosopher in classical Greece and founder of the academy in Athens, the first university in the western world) his world of ideas and Aristotle. The Stoic believes that natural law is self-evident because it is given with reason as such. Whoever has only that already has a knowledge or conscience about what is right and what is not; “Whom has been given reason by nature, he has also been given reason; so also the law…. and if the law, so is the law ”. In addition, natural law is essentially based on the concept of common sense. That all people participate in it, because all people are equal to one another, all have the same rights and should therefore behave accordingly; Epictetus: “We are all brothers and have God as Father in the same way. As a cosmopolitan, the Stoics' fatherland is the whole world, which is why their followers call for universal human love, charity, mildness and gentleness. The demand for equality is also made against other peoples, slaves, women and minor children who originally came from the roman Were severely disadvantaged. Natural law becomes the basis of international law. Then some stoically thinking emperors draw concrete conclusions from stoic legal thinking. While women previously had no legal capacity in Roman law (Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman military jurisdiction and legal developments that stretch over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables to the Corpus Juris Civilis on behalf of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I), Augustus abolished guardianship, at least for widows with several children, and under Nero (Nero was roman emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Klaudian dynasty), police laws were enacted to protect the slaves, formerly considered only tools, from the inhumanity of their masters. Hadrian (Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138) eventually punished the murder of a slave by his master. Antony Pius gave them the right to flee to the altars of the gods while Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius was Emperor of Rome) the gladiator Prohibition (A gladiator was an armed fighter who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire in violent clashes with other gladiators, wild animals, and convicted criminals). In the third century, state slaves can dispose of half of their property in their wills, and from the fourth century onwards, a slave can sue his master. The natural law of the Stoa can be described as humanistic on the basis of the idea of ​​a general right given with human nature itself. Consequently, the relationship of man to God was calculated according to natural law (natural law is a philosophy that certain rights are based on human nature, which is endowed by “God” or another “divine” source and can be universally understood through human reason) as it is the same all logo that unites them, while the animal is not a legal entity because it does not participate in the logo.
Knowing that theory alone is not enough, the Stoa does not address the question of ethical principles, but focuses on the practical teaching of virtue.
The first requirement is an active life, for the Stoic is a man of will, who loves the exertion, tension, struggle, “Socratic strength” and ponos of the Kynikers. Although the Stoic speaks the language of intellectualism in the doctrine of virtues, he is less interested in the essence and vision of spiritual ideals and backgrounds, so that here one again has to distinguish between word and language. Despite the intellectualized language, the Virtue itself not intellectualized. The stoic is a realist and as such knows that life is all about powerful grasping and decisive action; “Sustine et abstine” (“carrying and renouncing”) is therefore the motto of the entire doctrine of virtues, which is mainly based on the will. Philosophy does not consist of words and theorems, but of life and action, as Epictetus also expresses it: “You should not say that you are a philosopher, talk a lot about problems among your friends, but do what results from your knowledge . For example, when you eat, don't talk the way you should eat, I talk the way it should be ”, and Seneca agrees:“ If you are really busy, you have no time for stupidity; Work is the surest way to dispel the vices of idleness ”. As a man of will and character, the Stoic regards the consequence of his own actions as one of his highest duties everywhere, which is why he also rejects repentance. Seneca says: “The wise man never regrets what he has done, he never changes what he has done, he never changes his decision. The best way to have such an active life now is to participate in public life. So if the stoic wants to be virtuous, he must not remain in solitude but must choose the “vita activa”. He knows that he is a sociable being, that if he is looking for himself, he has to look for others at the same time, because it is always the same logo that sticks to him and his fellow human beings at the same time, which is why he does not lead a leisurely private life, but intervenes in public life in order to fulfill his duty.
The second recurring demand of the stoic virtue teach-re is the exhortation to apathy, which is a prerequisite for the first. In order not to disturb the path of virtue and natural action, the effects must be silenced. The stoic is also a sentient being, but he is by no means overwhelmed by emotions. Marc Aurel describes this with the saying “You have to be like a rock on which all waves break. He stands, but the surf is getting tired. " Longing, anger and fear must not move you: “First commandment: Do not let anything shake you”, because “Everything is as it is intended in the nature of the universe”. Horace describes this with the words: “Si fractus illabatur or-bis, impavidum ferient ruinä: And when a broken world falls on him, an intrepid person only encounters its ruins.
The term that summarizes the entire doctrine of virtue is the ideal of the wise. The Sophos (a wise man, in classical philosophy, is someone who has attained the wisdom a philosopher seeks) is exalted because he has all the virtues and always does the right thing; he is really steadfast and really happy; he alone is rich, free and beautiful; he differs from Zeus only in that his life is not eternal. That the wise man is the truly free man is a strange paradox of the Stoa, because on the one hand freedom is formally maintained, which means freedom of the rational People is meant. Everything that is connected to the outside world as well as to the body and emotions is a bondage for man. On the other hand, there is fate, because the Stoic (stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD) is also a fatalist, so the omnipotence of fate is very strongly emphasized. It is “the law of the cosmos according to which everything that has happened, everything that has happened and everything that is to come”. It is the invincible, unstoppable, inevitable cause, the series of causes themselves, worldly reason, the All-Logos. It is always the same whether we are talking about eternal causes or world law or natural law or fate or providence or Zeus (Zeus is the god of heaven and thunder in ancient Greek religion who reigned as king of the gods of Olympus). This conflict is resolved in such a way that the wise man sees the legality of events as his own legality, does not expect otherwise, and confirms fate. He doesn't suffer from the need for fat, but he welcomes it so he takes fat sending for granted. But even this solution is only a sham solution, because only an ideal will agrees with the necessity of world law. So one can hear from Seneca: "If you agree, fate will guide you, if not, it will force you."