What is ADP

Structural formula
Surname Adenosine diphosphate
other names
  • Adenosine 5 ′ - (trihydrogen diphosphate)
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphoric acid
  • ADP
Molecular formula C.10H15N5O10P2
CAS number 58-64-0
PubChem 6022
DrugBank DB03431
Brief description

white solid[1]

Molar mass 427.20 g mol−1
Physical state


safety instructions
GHS hazard labeling [1]
H and P phrases H: no H-phrases
P: no P-phrases[1]
EU labeling of hazardous substances [1]
R and S phrases R: no R-phrases
S: no S-phrases

3333 mg kg−1 (Mouse, intraperitoneal)[1]

As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions.
Template: Infobox chemical / molecular formula search available

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a nucleotide consisting of the diphosphate of the nucleoside adenosine. It is produced during the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Adenosine with a one-part phosphorus chain is analogously called adenosine monophosphate (AMP); with a three-part phosphorus chain it is called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Of these three molecules, ATP is the most energetic molecule - AMP is the least energetic.

The designation high-energy or low-energy is actually misleading. The bonds are by no means strong, but rather unstable. Since all three phosphate groups are negatively charged in biological systems and are packed close together, they repel each other, like a stretched spring. The divalent magnesium ion, coordinated under physiological conditions, stabilizes this tension somewhat.

The phosphorylation of substrates by means of ATP produces ADP, which can generally be formulated as follows:

$ \ mathrm {ATP + substrate \ xrightarrow {enzyme} product + ADP} $

The bond between the second and third phosphate of the phosphate chain is broken and the substrate is phosphorylated. The product is more energetic than the substrate. The energy-poor ADP is phosphorylated back to energy-rich ATP through energy-supplying reactions in the body. In all eukaryotes, these reactions take place in the mitochondria, a special organelle of the cell.

Individual evidence

  1. 1,01,11,21,31,4data sheet Adenosine diphosphate from Sigma-Aldrich, accessed June 12, 2011.

See also