What is the secret behind Jayalalithaa's death

★ J. Jayalalithaa - woman ..


★ J. Jayalalithaa

J. Jayalalithaa was an Indian politician and actress. Its followers mostly called it Amma, which means "mother" in Tamil. After a career in the South Indian film industry, Jayalalithaa began a political career in 1981 by her longtime film partner M. G. Ramachandran, a regional party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam in Tamil Nadu state. After Ramachandran's death in 1987, she took over the management of the AIADMK. From 1991 to 1996, with some interruptions, from 2001 to 2006 and again with some interruptions, from 2011 until her death in 2016, she was the head of the government of Tamil Nadu.


1.1. Life. Childhood. (Childhood)

J. Jayalalithaa was born on February 24, 1948 in the village of Melukote, Mandya District, Karnataka State. She came from a family of Tamil Brahmins from the Iyengar caste. Her father Jayaram, a lawyer, died when she was only two years old. Then your mother Vedavalli moved to Bangalore. Jayalalithaa spent most of her childhood with your grandparents in Mysore and with your aunt in Bangalore. Her aunt Vidyavathi, who starred in C. V. Nagaiah's directorial debut, De Veedu in 1953, brought Jayalalithaa's mother into contact with the Tamil film industry in Chennai, Madras. Under the screen name of Sandhya, the latter earns the family income as a supporting actress. 1958, Jayalalithaa Chennai followed. She took Bharatnatyam classes when she was a child. She left school early to support the family by working in the film industry.


1.2. Life. Film career. (Film career)

She made her film debut at the age of 13, directed by Shankar V. Giri in the English language film letter in 1961. She made her first experience in Kannada films, of which B. R. Panthulus Chinnada Gombe in 1964, was a great success. In 1965, Jayalalithaa made her debut in the Tamil film C. V. Sridhars Vennira Adai and in the Telugu film K. Pratyagatmas Manasulu Mamathalu. The star of the Telugu film, she became a vamp in G. Krishna s James Bond mix Goodachari 116 in 1966. In 1965 she starred in Panthulus Ayirathil Oruvan for the first time, along with MG Ramachandran - the star she was in both Your film - as well as your later political career - is mostly closely related. At the height of her film career between 1967 and 1970, she starred in almost every MG Ramachandran film, including Thaikku Thalaimagan 1967, Kanavan 1968, Pudhiya Bhoomi 1968, Adimai Penn 1969, Mattukkara Velan 1969, Nam Naadu 1969 and Engal Thanga 1970. Successful in 1972 was what Pattikada Pattanama in which she starred opposite Sivaji Ganesan and Manorama and won several Indian film awards. As Ramachandran she moved back from film in 1977. In 1992 she played herself again as Chief Minister in a supporting role in Neenga Nalla Erukkanum.


1.3. Life. Start of political career. (Beginning of political career)

Jayalalithaas film partner M. G. Ramachandran has been politically active in the Tamil regional party, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, DMK since the 1950s. In 1972 he founded his own party, All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam AIADMK, a splinter group of the DMK. In the state elections, in 1977 on the AIADMK via the DMK, which had ruled until then, and Ramachandran was Chief Minister, Head of Government of Tamil Nadu. 1982, Jayalalithaa went into politics and joined AIADMK. With the support of M. G. Ramachandrans you soon became an influential member of the party. 1983 followed the appointment as propaganda secretary of the AIADMK. From 1984 to 1989 she represented the party in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the entire Indian parliament.

24. In December 1987, M. G. Ramachandran, still in the office, died after a long illness. Immediately after his death a bitter war of succession broke out in the AIADMK dispute between Jayalalithaa and M. G. Ramachandran's widow, Janaki Ramachandran, who was determined, although politically completely inexperienced, to succeed him in the office of Chief Minister. In Ramachandran's funeral Jayalalithaa was forcibly committed by Ramachandrans to Janaki's followers, tearing the coffin. The AIADMK divided into two groups, under the leadership of Janakis and Jayalithaas. Given the political chaos of India's central government, Janaki sold after just 24 days in office, and the state of Tamil Nadu, was placed under President s Rule for a year. In the election in January 1989, the two factions split up AIADMK, which DMK was defeated, but Jayalalithaas group emerged significantly more from the election than Janakis. Jayalalithaa had given up her term of office to compete for Members of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha, the Parliament of Tamil Nadu, and, as a result of the elections, opposition leader in Tamil Nadu. After the election, Janaki Ramachandran retired from politics, and the two AIADMK political groups united under the leadership of Jayalalithaas.


1.4. Life. First term as Chief Minister 1991-1996. (First term as Chief Minister 1991-1996)

As early as January 1991, the DMK government was deposed by M. Karunanidhis of the Indian central government, on the grounds that they condone the activities of the Sri Lankan Tamil terrorist organization Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam LTTE in Tamil Nadu. During the President s Rule period, former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and another 17 people were murdered during a campaign rally in Sriperumbudur by an LTTE suicide bomber. At the next election to the DMK by the voters who blamed for the death of Gandhi, so that the AIADMK could win for itself, a house high victory. As a result of the selection, Jayalalithaa was sworn in on June 25, 1991 for the first time into the office of Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. Her first term saw the introduction of a number of popular social programs, as well as allegations of corruption, followed by her openly displayed wealth. In the next state election in May 1996, which AIADMK suffered because of it, a serious defeat in the elections. Jayalalithaa was also defeated in your constituency against the DMK candidates. As a result of the election, the DMK came back to government under the leadership of Karunanidhis.

In December 1996, Jayalalithaa found out on a number of allegations of corruption and remained in jail for 30 days. The legal processing of the allegations should take many years. In the run-up to the entire Indian general election in 1998, Jayalalithaa announced the long-running election, an alliance with the AIADMK, which allied with the Congress party and allied with the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata party BJP. After the election victory of the BJP, the AIADMK participated in the all-Indian government of Atal Bihari's. Jayalalithaa tried to move, through her newfound influence, to sell the central government, the DMK government in Tamil Nadu. The BJP refused Jayalalithaa's claim, accusing her of wanting to get rid of prosecution for allegations of corruption. Then, after only 13 months, the AIADMK withdrew the entire Indian government, which triggered its re-election in 1999.


1.5. Life. Return to Chief Minister 2001-2006. (Return to the office of the Chief Minister 2001-2006)

Processing the allegations of corruption against Jayalithaa dragged over more. In 2000 she was convicted in the first instance of two counts, but went on appeal. Nevertheless, a victory against the DMK managed the AIADMK in the parliamentary elections in Tamil Nadu in May 2001. As a result of the election Jayalithaa again on the 14. In May 2001, the office of chief minister returned. In September of the same year, however, the Supreme Court in India ruled that your election was null and void due to the allegations pending against you in the pending criminal proceedings. Jayalalithaa had to be, 21, therefore on. September 2001 to evade. As your successor, you have to meet the political newcomer O. Panneerselvam, who had no ambitions of his own, and during his tenure, presented such things as a loyalist Jayalalithaas. In December of the same year, Jayalalithaa was acquitted in the next instance and was able to compete in a February 2002 by-election for Parliament of Tamil Nadu. On March 2, 2002, Panneerselvam resigned and Jayalithaa returned to Chief Minister.

As in the previous elections in Tamil Nadu, the official penalties came into effect in the next legislative period in May 2006. Because of India's ruling majority, the election of a relatively small number of swing voters can have a decisive impact on the outcome of the election. So Jayalalithaas was elected from government and he followed her back to the office of the Chief Minister.


1.6. Life. Third and fourth terms as Chief Minister, 2011-2016. (Third and fourth term as Chief Minister, 2011-2016)

The pendulum swung again in the parliamentary elections in Tamil Nadu in May 2011. The corruption allegations faced by the DMK government was voted out, and Jayalalithaa returned on May 16, 2011, back to the post of Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. During the following legislature, your government made a number of popular animal welfare programs. In the run-up to the entire 2014 Indian general election, Jayalalithaa has ambitions since the office of Indian Prime Minister said. In the event of a stalemate between the two major national parties, the Congress Party and BJP, they would have chances chosen as a compromise candidate for a third front left and regional parties. Ultimately, the BJP won a clear election, so that Jayalalithaa could not translate the very good election result of the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu, the political influence in New Delhi.

The legal processing of corruption cases involving Jayalalithaa's first term in office was not yet complete. September 27, 2014, a special court in Bangalore sentenced you to four years in prison. On the basis of the judgment was the dismissal from the office of chief minister. As in 2001, your successor was your loyalist o Panneerselvam. Jayalalithaa was released on bail October 14, 2014. Jayalalithaa appealed the verdict. May 11, 2015, overturned by the Karnataka High Court Jayalalithaas conviction and acquitted on all counts. This cleared the way to return to the office of Chief Minister. After Panneerselvam was ready to come back, it was sworn in Jayalalithaa on May 23, 2015 Jayalalithaa was once again as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. In a by-election on June 23, 2015, it was selected with 151,000 votes and a record participation of 74% in the parliament of Tamil Nadu. Your vote is the strongest opposition candidate, won 9710 votes. The previous AIADMK constituency deputy resigned in May 2015 to free the constituency in a by-election.

In the parliamentary elections in Tamil Nadu in May 2016, it was the AIADMK to repeat their victory of 2011. To Nadu for the first time in 32 years in Tamil a government is re-elected. In contrast to previous elections, the AIADMK did not have every electoral alliance with other parties, but did put up its own candidates in all constituencies. The reasons for the AIADMK's election victory were mainly through Jayalalithaa, the social programs initiated during the past legislative period. Jayalalithaa was sworn in again as Chief Minister in office on May 23, 2016.


1.7. Life. Death. (Death)

On September 22nd, 2016, Jayalalithaa was in a private hospital in Chennai, in. The reason, officially, was fever and dehydration. To get your treatment, specially flown in from a specialist in London. In early October it became known that she was dependent on breathing assistance. While your hospital fear would remain, hardly any reliable information about their health was leaked to the public, as your followers could resort to violence or self-mutilation. At least two people were arrested for "false rumors" online about Jayalalithaa's health. On November 19, Jayalalithaa was adjourned from intensive care to a normal ward. Still on December 2nd, it was said that Jayalalithaa was in "fully recovered" and will soon be out of the hospital. On December 4th, but suffered a heart attack, the aftermath, who passed away on the evening of December 5th.

On the night of Jayalalithaas death of O. Panneerselvam, who was previously set up as the commissioner of the office, was sworn in as her successor to the post of Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. On December 6th, Jayalalithaa received a state funeral in the presence of numerous political dignitaries, beginning with the Indian President Pranab Mukherjee and Prime Minister Narendra Modi. She was buried at the side of M. G. Ramachandrans in his monumental tomb at the north end of the Chennai city beach Marina Beach beige. Although the traditions of your caste provide for a cremation, was buried with him, as did the office's late predecessors, M. G. Ramachandran and C. N. Annadurai.


2. Personal. (Staff)

Jayalalithaa was unmarried and childless. After her only brother Jayakumar died in 1990, she had no close relatives. With her longtime film partner and political mentor M. G. Ramachandran s Association Jayalalithaa is a very close connection.

Also, with your trusted V. K. Sasikala Jayalalithaa became closely connected. Sasikala and her husband Natarajan lived in Jayalalithaa's residence. Though never holding any political office, Sasikala appears to have exerted significant behind-the-scenes influence on Jayalalithaa's politics. In December 2011, Jayalalithaa estranged Sasikala and you and twelve of your family from the castle, members of the AIADMK, apparently because they had planned an attempted coup in the party. In March 2012, Sasikala, but Jayalalithaa, promised allegiance, and was rehabilitated again. At Jayalalithaa's funeral, it was Sasikala who, along with Jayalalithaa's Deepak Jayakumar nephew, the closest living male relative of the last ritual, performed. It was soon after Jayalalithaa's death that Sasikala would play an important role in politics. December 29, 2016 was determined to the Secretary General, party leader of the AIADMK.


3.1. Political work. Leadership style and public perception. (Leadership style and public perception)

Jayalalithaa used a very charismatic leadership style, and stood at the center of a strong personality cult. His followers referred to, they are known by the name Amma அம்மா Ammā or "revolutionary leader", in reference to their predecessors, the M. G. Ramachandran, who had worn the male form of the same title. The worship of their followers was part of almost religious proportions. It was commonplace that other AIADMK politicians threw themselves in front of her on her stomach on the floor, expressing their devotion to her. Jayalalithaa's birthday was celebrated in the manner of a religious festival.

Early in her political career, Jayalalithaa moved to gain his legitimacy mostly from his association with M. G. Ramachandran. Before your first election to the post of prime minister in 1991, you promised in your campaign to talk repeatedly the "produce, rule, M. G. Ramachandrans" again. An important role in the political culture of Tamil Nadu also play posters and larger-than-life figures made of cardboard, called the cutouts, the leading politicians, especially in the 1990s, the city of the many cities of Tamil Nadu before, its Distribution was restricted by law. In these visual representations, Jayalalithaa was in the early phase mostly together with M. G. Ramachandran, often in standing ovations of the pose. After her election as Prime Minister, she was almost always represented alone, usually in a rigid, majestic pose from the front. At the same time, Jayalalithaa, your public image is also changing. Previously, she had already worn saris, which from now on always in public in a large cape. Choosing this garment, unusual for Indian women, weakened femininity and glamor of your appearance and therefore emphasizes your authority. Jayalalithaas contributed to her public perception of her for the South Indian conditions, a very light skin color. Since fair skin is the ideal of beauty, she helped her rise to become a film star. Visual representations of Jayalalithaas as a politician have always claimed her light skin color.


3.2. Political work. Welfare policy

Jayalalithaa adopted a populist social policy, which gained great sympathy, especially among the poorer classes. Both the AIADMK and DMK-controlled practice of distributing election gifts, so-called freebies for the population. For example, after her election victory in 2011 Jayalalithaa had to distribute free laptops to all students in public and state-sponsored schools in Tamil Nadu. In an unprecedented way, Jayalalithaa managed to associate such benefits with yourself. It has proven to be very popular over the 2013 launch of "Amma Canteens", state-owned restaurants that offer a portrait of Jayalalithaas simple meals at heavily subsidized prices.In 2016, there were already more than 300 Amma canteens in Tamil Nadu. A portion of rice with sambar was here for five rupees, the equivalent of seven euro cents. The Amma mensen subsidizes "Amma-Drink-Water", "Amma-Salt" and "Amma-Cement", followed by the state - all bearing the image of Jayalalithaas.


3.3. Political work. The Legacy of the Dravidian Movement. (The legacy of the Dravidian movement)

The roots of the Jayalalithaas party, the AIADMK, are in the Dravidian movement that started in the first half of the 20th century. Century was formed in Tamil Nadu and the Tamils' own identity as one of "s President", in contrast to the "members" of North India, postulated. The Dravidian movement also rejected religion and the caste system and opposed it, particularly the assumed superiority of the Brahmins caste. Jayalalithaa is known for the legacy of the Dravidian Movement and was a tradition of Dravidian Movement leaders. So that in 2015 a return to the office of Chief Minister will be the first act of the monuments of M. G. Ramachandrans, C. N. Tamil Nadu, and E. V. Ramasamis, who pay your respects. However, Jayalalithaa, like her predecessor M. G. Ramachandran, had mostly got rid of the ideology of the Dravidian movement. The fact that Jayalalithaa, a Brahmani, led one of the anti-Brahmin Dravidian movement, emerged from the party was quite an anomaly. Also from your religious attitude of Jayalalithaa no secret, even if you never see them in public. The Tamil nationalism has played, Jayalalithaas rhetoric, in contrast to the DMK, hardly a role. Nevertheless, you continue to stand up for federalism and for the assertion of the interests of Tamil Nadu against the Indian central government.


3.4. Political work. Attitude to the Sri Lankan Conflict. (Attitude of the Sri Lankan conflict)

On the issue of the Sri Lankan conflict, the heated under-Tamil nationalist circles in Tamil Nadu because the members of the Sri Lankan Tamils ​​live in their minds, Jayalalithaa changed in their position. After the outbreak of civil war in 1983, they solidified the cause of the LTTE extremists, who demanded a separate Tamil Eelam state for the Tamils ​​in Sri Lanka, and the admission of Sri Lankan Tamil supports who opposed the refugees in Tamil Nadu . After the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in 1991, Jayalalithaa turned against the LTTE and began to see the refugees as potential terrorists. Faced with the humanitarian catastrophe in the final stages of the civil war in 2009, Jayalalithaa wave again and called the Indian central government to take a hard line against the Sri Lankan government. In the ensuing period she used several anti-Sri Lankan resentments, for example in 2013, Sri Lankan players participating in cricket play, the Indian Premier League, which was held in Tamil Nadu, said.


3.5. Political work. Rivalry with him. (Rivalry with he)

Jayalalithaa and the DMK party leader M. He took turns in the 1990s and 2000s, several times in the office of Chief Minister, uniting a political rivalry that occasionally borders on personal enmity. She then returned in 2001 to the post of Chief Minister Jayalalithaa, he did, and arrest a number of other DMK politicians in a night and fog action. The action has been widely used as revenge for your arrest on corruption allegations after his release in 1996 and led to a crisis between Tamil Nadu and the Indian central government because the arrests belong to two central government ministers. To reverse several Jayalalithaa decisions, push through Karunanidhi's previous government. Thus, a new parliament and government was created during Karunanidhi's tenure between 2008 and 2010 in the Chennai complex. After her election victory in 2011, Jayalalithaa initiated the institutions she moved back to her old seat in Fort St. George, and left that of he's moved to convert a new building into a "multi-super-specialty hospital".


3.6. Political work. Corruption allegations and conviction. (Allegations of corruption and condemnation)

After her first tenure as Chief Minister, cases of corruption due to the extremely opulent lifestyle are loud against her. At the time of your arrest in 1996 in connection with these allegations, Tamil Nadu police had confiscated more than 10,000 saris and 750 pairs of shoes adorned with over 30 kilograms of gold, jewelry and precious stones. Jayalalithaa then tries through political intrigue and extortion to bring against them in a pending litigation case. As the miss-long said, the resignation of her party, the AIADMK from the coalition government under Prime Minister Vajpayee. That was the immediate trigger for the new elections in 1999.

After a trial lasted a total of 18 years, J. Jayalalithaa was found guilty of embezzlement of 666.5 million rupees, almost 8 million euros, on September 27, 2014 by a special court in Bangalore (Bengaluru), and thus she lost her position as Chief Minister. Her successor, O. Panneerselvam, was repeated over and over again. Immediately after the verdict was pronounced, there were confrontations in Chennai between supporters of AIADMK and supporters of rival Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, DMK. According to the judgment of J. Jayalalithaa and 3 co-defendants Sasikala, Ilavarasi and Sudhakaran should serve 4 years in prison. J. Jayalalithaa was assigned a fine of the equivalent of 12.6 million euros, the other three causes should pay, each of 1.26 million euros. 18. She was released on bail in October 2014.

May 11, 2015 Jayalalithaa was spoken along with three other defendants in the overhaul by the Karnataka High Court in Bangalore on charges of unjust enrichment-free. The public prosecutor then appealed to the Supreme Court. February 14, 2017, the Supreme Court announced its decision in the last instance. The acquittal was overturned by the Karnataka High Court. Jayalalithaa was posthumously acquitted, along with the three co-defendants guilty of "criminal conspiracy" formed to disguise those who hid illegally acquired wealth in web-front organizations and bogus companies during her tenure as Chief Minister. The Supreme Court ruled in its ruling that Jayalalithaa in 1991, had assets of 2:01 rupees crore to about € 240,000, while at the end of her tenure in 1996 it was 66.44 crore rupees, just under 8 million euros. This was a large part of the fraudulently acquired wealth.

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  • Mayor. The arrest is seen as a case of political vengeance on the part of Jayalalithaa and sparked a crisis between the Tamil Nadu government
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