In which programming language was Minecraft developed

Java Edition

The Java Edition by Minecraft is the original version of the game and is being developed by Mojang Studios for Windows, Mac OS and Linux in the Java programming language. Markus Persson (Notch) started development of the game on May 10, 2009 and released the first version on May 17, 2009. On November 18, 2011, the full version of the game was finally released at MineCon 2011.

Purchase and availability [edit]

The Java Edition of Minecraft can be played for free in its current version and, if desired, also in older versions in demo mode. In this mode the game lasts 100 minutes (which corresponds to 5 game days), but it can be restarted as often as desired. The full mode can be activated for a one-time payment of € 23.95. This means that you can play for as long as you like, both in single player mode and on Minecraft servers with other players in one world.

Payment is made by credit card, PayPal or Paysafe card. You can also get the license as a gift, because it is possible to purchase a Minecraft gift certificate (gift code), which contains a code for activation.

An overview of the sales figures for all Minecraft editions can be found here.

System requirements [edit]

Mojang specifies the following system requirements: List of system requirements

In order to rule out problems, you should try the free demo version before buying.



Notch got the idea for Minecraft after meeting other users of the "TIG Source" forum in 2009 Infiniminer played.[6] Among other things, also influenced him Dwarf Fortress, Dungeon Keeper,[7] and Notch's own previous project RubyDung[8].

I realized that a game that simple yet that dynamic had a lot of potential to turn into a really great game, and kept coming up with things I wanted to change and stuff I wanted to add.
I realized that such a simple yet dynamic game had a lot of potential to become a good game, and I got more and more ideas about what to change and implement.
~ Notch[9]

When he started developing Minecraft, it was supposed to be a small project. For example, when he published the first YouTube video of Minecraft, he didn't know a name for the game and just called it "cave game"[10][11] (Cave game). Four days later he invented the name "Minecraft: Order of the Stone"[12]. The name was a reference to the webcomic "The Order of the Stick", which Notch was very fond of and which was based on the fantasy role-playing game "Dungeons and Dragons". In the comic, a group of role-players who called themselves "The Order of the Stick" experienced fantasy adventures. The Minecraft name "The Order of the Stone" should therefore suggest that Minecraft should be about adventures in caves and with stone blocks. A little later, however, Notch shortened the name to "'Minecraft'", as this name was easier to remember and players should not confuse it with the webcomic. Minecraft means Mining industry or Mining craft and puts the player in the role of a professional mine master.

About a week after his first experiments, Notch released an "early private single-player version" on May 16, 2009[13].

Classic [edit]

Minecraft 0.0.11a was made publicly available one day after its private release on May 17, 2009,[14] the next day it was mentioned on[15] This development phase was later called Minecraft Classic.[16] Minecraft was rewritten in July and now used the Lightweight Java Gaming Library (LWJGL).[17] For a long time, Classic was the only version in which there was a creative mode in which the player owned all the blocks an infinite number of times and could break them down immediately. The creative mode was only integrated into the current game with Minecraft Beta.

Survival test [edit]

Survival Test was released on September 1, 2009 and was a second variant of the game in which the survival mode (engl. Survival mode) has been tested. In this mode the player has to mine blocks, fight monsters and has a life meter. If the player dies, unless the world has been saved beforehand, he can no longer play on it and must start a new one.

Indev [edit]

Main article: Indev

Indev (short for "in development") was released on December 23, 2009 and was the third variant of the game. These were development versions for survival mode that could still be buggy. But Notch had received the request from the community to be able to try out the newly implemented game elements. While Classic and Survival Test could be played for free, only users with a paid account had access to the Indev versions.

When a new game was started, the player would spawn in an already built wooden house. Updates introduced a more complex and realistic lighting system than in Survival Test. Indev received other updates that gradually added some basic game elements to Minecraft. Some updates should only test new things, such as torches or fire. Unique to Indev were map types like "Flying Islands" and map themes like "Hell" and "Paradise". Just like in Survival Test, if the player died, the world was lost.

Infdev [edit]

Infdev (short for Infinite Development) was released on February 27, 2010 and was the fourth variant of Minecraft. It relied on the latest Indev version and contained the important game element of the limitless worlds, as well as some new craft recipes, 3D clouds, a new world generator, more realistic liquids, more complicated cave systems, carts and the possibility of being resuscitated and none after death having to start a new world. However, some game elements from Indev such as the map types and map themes have been removed.

Alpha [edit]

Main article: Alpha

On June 28, 2010, Notch released a launcher with which the game could be played for the first time without a web browser. The corresponding Infdev version was named Alpha1.0 shortly afterwards. After the release of Alpha 1.0, the intermediate steps of the survival mode were no longer required and were removed from the website (Survival Test, Indev and Infdev). However, the creative mode was kept and named "Classic". This meant that there were only two variants of the game: Classic and Alpha.

The main addition to Alpha was the long awaited multiplayer for Survival mode. After it was released, sales and player numbers rose so dramatically that Notch founded Mojang AB and hired people to support him so he could take care of the programming again. New game elements such as redstone circuits, boats, new music, new creatures and a setting for the level of difficulty were often implemented without notice in so-called "Seecret Friday Updates".

The Halloween update on October 31, 2010 was a major update that added biomes, the nether, new creatures, blocks, items and other things to the game.

Beta [edit]

Main article: Beta

In the alpha phase, different game variants were tried out until all basic functions were available. On December 20, 2010, the beta phase began, in which the game should be embellished and filled with content until it was finished. November 2011 was set as the completion date in April 2011.

Game elements were added such as a new logo and a new launcher, statistics, weather, better lighting, coloring, more plants, wolves and squids, beds and other blocks and objects.

The Adventure Update on September 15, 2011 was a large multi-part update with a focus on improving the game experience while exploring and fighting. New game elements were a new world generator, new creatures, blocks, biomes and objects. In addition, several new generated structures such as villages, forts and mines have been added. Changes to the general gameplay included an improved combat system with critical hits and experience, a hardcore mode and an optional game objective: to travel to the end and defeat the ender dragon. Finally, the creative mode was also integrated into the game, with which the still free Classic version slowly lost its raison d'être. However, it was only finally no longer offered by Mojang in October 2015.

The original plan was to release Beta 1.9 as the last beta version. But only six pre-releases with version number Beta 1.9 were released for users to report bugs. There was a "feature freeze" on October 18, 2011 and development only focused on fixing as many bugs as possible in order to prepare the game for an official release.[18] On November 13, 2011, a release candidate of full version 1.0 was published.[19]

Full version [edit]

The official release of Minecraft was the full version 1.0 on November 18, 2011 during MineCon. It was the second part of the Adventure Update after the first part had already appeared in Beta 1.8 and contained all game elements that had already been pre-released in the development versions for Beta 1.9. The most important change compared to Beta 1.8 was a game objective that can be achieved by defeating the ender dragon in the end.

Minecraft continued to evolve in the years that followed. This development is still ongoing. An overview of the major updates:

  • Full version 1.1 from January 12, 2012 with enchantments for arcs, the flatland world type and languages.
  • Full version 1.2 from March 1, 2012 with jungle biome, ocelots and rare drops.
  • Full version 1.3 from August 1, 2012 with trade, temples and the adventure mode.
  • Full version 1.4 (Pretty Scary Update) from October 25, 2012 with the beacon, anvils, the command block and wither.
  • Full version 1.5 (Redstone Update) from March 13, 2013 with many Redstone elements.
  • Full version 1.6 (The Horse Update) from July 1, 2013 with horses and ceramics.
  • Full version 1.7 (The Update that Changed the World) from October 25, 2013 with an overhaul of the world generator.
  • Full version 1.8 (The Bountiful Update) from September 2nd, 2014 with revised trade and enchantment, rabbits and many new commands.
  • Full version 1.9 (Combat Update) from February 26, 2016 with a revision of the combat mechanics and the ending.
  • Full version 1.10 (Frostburn Update) from June 8, 2016 with polar bears, ice hikers, desert zombies and magma blocks.
  • Full version 1.11 (Exploration Update) from November 14, 2016 with forest mansions, magicians, llamas and the observer.
  • Full version 1.12 (World of Color Update) from June 7th 2017 with lots of colorable blocks, parrots, the recipe book and progress.
  • Full version 1.13 (Update Aquatic) was released on July 18, 2018, mainly improved the sea and changed the syntax of many commands.
  • Full version 1.14 (Village & Pillage) was released on April 23, 2019, villages were expanded.
  • Full version 1.15 (Buzzy Bees) released on December 10, 2019, bees and other similar items added.
  • Full version 1.16 (Nether Update) released on June 23, 2020, Nether has been expanded.

For a full version history of full version 1.0 see here.

Table of game elements [edit]

The table summarizes the milestones of each development cycle.

  1. abcdDuring the development of Beta 1.9 it was decided to publish it as full version 1.0, so that the game elements developed in Beta 1.9 belong to the full version and not to the beta phase.

Logo [edit]

Modifications and third-party programs [edit]

Unofficial modifications [edit]

Minecraft can be changed by changing the Java class files in minecraft.jar. The method of game modification is not supported by Mojang, as it can make the game unplayable due to outdated, defective, and incompatible modifications with other modifications. Nevertheless, modifying the game is officially allowed as long as you don't ask for money (see license). The modifications created by users kept impressing the Minecraft developers, and sometimes they ask for permission to officially incorporate parts of them into the game, such as the horses. In the Minecraft credits (after the epilogue) these modders are listed under Additional programming listed, e.g. Paul Spooner for his sound system, Hippoplatimus for the piston, DrZhark for the horses etc.

Plugin API [edit]

Mojang wants to modify Minecraft officially support, however, without the program minecraft.jar is changed. Instead, files should be able to be added. plugin) that the game should read in and observe. These files should be able to call functions of Minecraft (= programming interface, English API, Application programming interface). The Plugin API has been planned since the alpha phase (2010). But only after the release of the first full version at the end of 2011 will Minecraft be converted step by step in this direction. Several new developers (including Dinnerbone and Grum) have even been hired to drive this topic forward. Many changes are necessary for this, including internal reprogramming, which, viewed from the outside, does not seem to have any effect. Therefore, the progress is not always apparent. An essential part of the plugin API are the resource packages and data packages (see below): they can be added as a file (= plugin) and change the game.

Resource packages [edit]

The game supports changing standard resources such as textures, tones, texts, shaders and construction models through resource packages. These contain the respective changed content in specific files and folders, packed in a .zip archive. Resource packs can be added to the game via the menu / options / resource packs.

Data packets [edit]

For each world the loot of creatures and chests, the recipes, the progress and other data can be changed with a data package. A data package, like a resource package, contains the changed content in certain files and folders and is added with the command.

Third party programs [edit]

There are many third party programs for Minecraft. These are programs that do not change the game, but the stored data. These include map programs, 3D world editors and viewers, data editors, information programs (for example for craft recipes), server wrappers and other specialized programs. Similar to modifications, these programs are not supported by Mojang.

History [edit]

Version history of the Java Edition
Full version 1.12(17w14a)
  • The Java Edition is upgrading to Java 1.8.
Full version 1.17(21w19a)
  • The Java Edition is upgrading to Java 1.16.

References Edit]