How do foiling monohull sailboats work


Propulsion of a vehicle by wind power

uses the wind acting on sails, wing sails or kites to move a vehicle on the surface of the water (Sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer or kite surfer) ice (Ice boat) or further country (Land yacht) on a chosen course, which is often part of a larger navigation plan.

A course that is defined in terms of true wind direction is known as a sail point.

Conventional sailing boats cannot draw power from sails at a sailing point that is too close to the wind. At some point on the sail, the seaman adjusts the orientation of each sail in relation to the apparent wind direction (as perceived on the vessel) in order to mobilize the force of the wind. The forces transmitted via the sails are counteracted by forces from the hull, keel and rudder of a sailing boat, by forces from skaters on an ice boat or by forces from the wheels of a land sailboat in order to enable the course to be steered.

Most sailing in the 21st century is a form of recreation or sport. Recreational sailing or sailing can be divided into races and cruises. Cruises can include extensive offshore and ocean crossing cruises, coastal sailing within sight of the land, and day sailing.

Until the middle of the 19th century, sailing ships were the most important means of maritime trade. This period is known as the Age of Sail.


Throughout history, sailing has been instrumental in the development of civilization and has given mankind more mobility than land travel, be it for trade, transport or warfare, and the ability to fish. The earliest depiction of a ship under sails appears on one in Kuwait between 5500 and 5000 BC. Found painted disc. They sold other civilizations and taught them how to build ships, sail, and navigate.
[1]Austronesian oceanfarers traveled long stretches of the open ocean in outrigger canoes using navigation methods such as rod charts.[2][3] Advances in sailing technology from the Middle Ages onwards enabled Arab, Chinese, Indian and European explorers to travel to regions with extreme weather and climatic conditions. There were improvements in sails, masts, and rigging; Improvements in maritime navigation, including the cross tree and maps of both the sea and constellations, allowed for greater safety in navigation. From the 15th century, European ships continued north, staying longer on the Grand Banks and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and eventually began exploring the Pacific Northwest and Western Arctic.[4] Sailing has contributed to many great explorations in the world.

According to Jett, the Egyptians used a bipod to prop up a sail that allowed a reed boat to last until 3500 BC. To go upstream in the following wind. Such sails evolved into a square sail that lasted until the 19th century. Such rigs generally couldn't sail much closer than 80 degrees to the wind. In Southeast Asia, forward and return journeys seem to have developed - the data are uncertain - so that drilling rigs are possible that can sail up to 60–75 ° downwind.[5]


Sail points (and predominant sailing force component for a displacement sailboat).
A. seesaws (no driving force) – 0-30 °
B. Local transport (Elevator) – 30–50 °
C. Beam range (Elevator) – 90 °
D. Wide reach (lift - pull) – ~ 135 °
E. Running (pull) – 180 °
True wind (V.T.) is the same throughout the diagram, while the boat speed (V.B.) and apparent wind (V.A) vary with the sail point.

The physics of sailing results from a balance of forces between the wind, which propels the sailing vehicle when it sails over its sails, and the resistance of the sailing vehicle to the blowing off of the course, which is provided by keel, oar and underwater foils in the water and other elements of the underbody of a sailboat, on ice from the runners of an ice boat, or on land from the wheels of a sail-powered land vehicle.

The forces on the sails depend on the wind speed and direction as well as the speed and direction of the vehicle. The speed of the vehicle at a particular sail point contributes to "apparent wind" - the wind speed and direction measured on the moving vehicle. The apparent wind on the sail creates an overall aerodynamic force which can be resolved into air resistance - the force component in the direction of the apparent wind - and the force component can be increased normal (90 °) to the apparent wind. Depending on the orientation of the sail with the apparent wind (Attack angle), Lifting or pulling may be the predominant propulsion component. Depending on the angle of attack of a set of sails in relation to the apparent wind, each sail exerts a propulsive force on the sailing vehicle, either by an attached flow dominated by lift or by a separate flow dominated by drag. Additionally, sails can interact with each other to create forces that differ from the sum of the individual contributions of each sail when used alone.

Apparent wind speed [edit]

The term “speed” refers to both speed and direction. As applied to the wind apparent wind speed ((V.A) is the air speed that acts on the leading edge of the furthest forward sail or is experienced by instruments or crew members on a moving sailing ship. In nautical terminology, wind speeds are usually expressed in knots and wind angles in degrees. All sailboats achieve a constant Forward speed ((V.B.) for a given true wind speed ((V.T.) and Point of sail. The sail point of the vehicle affects its speed for a certain true wind speed. Conventional sailing boats cannot draw any power from the wind in a “no-go” zone, which, depending on the vehicle, is about 40 to 50 ° from the actual wind. Likewise, the direct headwind speed of all conventional sailing boats is limited to the actual wind speed. As a sailboat sails further away from the wind, the apparent wind gets smaller and the lateral component gets smaller. The boat speed is highest at the jet range. To act like an airfoil, the sail on a sailboat is stripped farther out as the course is further away from the wind.[6] When an ice boat sails further away from the wind, the apparent wind increases slightly and the boat speed is highest for the long distance. In order to behave like a wing profile, the sail is laid on an ice boat for all three sail points.[7]

Raise and pull the sails [edit]

Aerodynamic force components for two sail points.
Left boat: Headwind with detached airflow like a Parachute- predominantly pull Component propels the boat with little heel torque.
Right boat: Updraft (tightly drawn) with attached airflow like a wing- predominantly Elevator Component both propels the boat and contributes to the heel.

Elevator on a sail that acts as a hydrofoil occurs in one direction upright on the incoming air flow (the apparent wind speed for the headsail) and is a result of pressure differences between the windward and leeward surfaces and depends on the angle of attack, the shape of the sail, the air density and the speed of the apparent wind. The lift force results from the average pressure on the windward surface of the sail, which is higher than the average pressure on the leeward side.[8] These pressure differences arise in connection with the curved air flow. When air follows a curved path along the windward side of a sail, there is a pressure gradient perpendicular to the direction of flow with higher pressure on the outside of the curve and lower pressure on the inside. To create lift, a sail must have an “angle of attack” between the chord line of the sail and the apparent wind speed. The angle of attack depends on both the sail point of the vehicle and how the sail is set in relation to the apparent wind.[9]

As the lift created by a sail increases, so does the drag created by the lift, which together with the parasitic drag makes up the total drag pullthat works in one direction parallel to the incoming airflow. This occurs when the angle of attack increases with the sail trim or course change and the lift coefficient increases together with the drag coefficient induced by the lift up to the point of aerodynamic stall. At the beginning of the standstill, the lift is abruptly reduced, as is the drag caused by the lift. Sails with the apparent wind behind them (especially upwind) work in a blocked state.[10]

Lifting and pulling are components of the total aerodynamic force on sails, which forces in the water (for a boat) or on the surface (for an ice boat or land sailboat) withstand. Sails work in two basic modes; under the Lift predominant Mode, the sail behaves analogously to a wing attached with airflow on both surfaces; under the Drag predominant Mode, the sail works analogously to a Parachute with air flow in detached flow swirling around the sail.

Lift dominance (wing mode) [edit]

Angle of attack of the sail (α) and the resulting (idealized) flow pattern for attached flow, maximum lift and standstill for a hypothetical sail. The stagnation lines (red) describe the air that flows to the leeward side (above) from that to the windward side (below) of the sail.

Sails allow a sailboat to advance to windward thanks to their ability to create lift (and the boat's ability to withstand the resulting side forces). Each sail configuration has a characteristic lift coefficient and an associated drag coefficient, which can be determined experimentally and theoretically calculated. Sailboats align their sails with a favorable angle of attack between the entry point of the sail and the apparent wind, even if their course changes. The ability to create lift is limited by sailing too close to the wind when there is no effective angle of attack available to create lift (resulting in teetering) and the wind being so far away from the wind that that The sail cannot be aimed at a favorable angle of attack to prevent lift from stalling with flow separation.

Draw supremacy (parachute mode) [edit]

When sailboats are on a course where the angle between the sail and the apparent wind (the angle of attack) exceeds the point of maximum lift, flow separation occurs.[11] The air resistance increases and the lift decreases with increasing angle of attack, when the distance becomes increasingly pronounced, until the sail is perpendicular to the apparent wind, when the lift becomes negligible and the air resistance predominates. In addition to sails used upwind, spinnakers provide a surface and curvature suitable for sailing, with separate flow at sail points upwind, analogous to parachutes that offer both buoyancy and drag.[12]

Sailing against the wind with a spinnaker
  • The spinnaker is set for a long range and generates both lift with separate flow and air resistance.

  • The spinnaker cross-section has been tailored to a wide range and shows the transition from the boundary layer to the separated flow, where vortex shedding begins.

  • Symmetrical spinnaker in headwinds, which mainly creates drag.

  • Symmetrical spinnaker cross-section with the following apparent wind showing vortex shedding.

Wind variation with height and time [edit]

The wind speed increases with the height above the surface. At the same time, the wind speed can vary as gusts over short periods of time.

Wind shear affects sailing boats in motion by showing different wind speeds and directions at different heights along the mast. Wind shear occurs due to friction across a water surface that slows air flow.[13] The ratio of wind at the surface to wind at an altitude above the surface varies by a power law with an exponent of 0.11 to 0.13 above the ocean. This means that a wind of 5 m / s (9.7 kn) at 3 m above the water is approximately 6 m / s (12 kn) at 15 m (50 ft) above the water. With hurricane force winds at 40 m / s (78 kn) on the surface, the speed at 15 m (50 ft) would be 49 m / s (95 kn).[14] This suggests that sails that reach higher above the surface may be exposed to stronger wind forces that move the center of force on them higher above the surface and increase the heel moment. In addition, the apparent wind direction moves aft with height above water, which may require a corresponding twist in the shape of the sail in order to achieve a current associated with the height.[15]

Gusts can be predicted by the same value that serves as the exponent for wind shear and serves as the gust factor. So you can expect the gusts to be about 1.5 times stronger than the prevailing wind speed (a 10 knot wind can cause up to 15 knots of gusts). This, combined with changes in wind direction, suggests the extent to which a sailboat needs to adjust the angle of the sail for gusts of wind on a given course.[16]

Point of sail [edit]

A sailboat's ability to derive force from the wind depends on the point of sail it is on - the direction of travel under sails in relation to the actual wind direction above the surface. The main sails of the sail correspond to approximately 45 ° segments of a circle, starting with 0 ° directly into the wind. For many sailboats, 45 degrees on either side of the wind is a “no-go” zone.[17] where a sail is unable to mobilize power from the wind.[7] Sailing on a stretch as close to the wind as possible (approx. 45 °) is called “close combat”. At 90 ° upwind, a vehicle is in a “beam range”. At 135 ° ahead of the wind, a vehicle is on a “long range”. At 180 ° away from the wind (sailing in the same direction as the wind) a vehicle is running “against the wind”.

In points of the sail, which range from tightly drawn to far-reaching, the sails essentially act like a wing, with the lift primarily driving the vehicle. In sailing points with a long range up to a headwind, the sails essentially act like a parachute, with the air resistance primarily driving the vehicle. In ships with little forward resistance, ice boats and land yachts, this transition takes place further away from the wind than in sailing boats and sailing ships.[7]

The wind direction for sail points always refers to the true wind- the wind felt by a stationary observer. The apparent wind- The wind that an observer feels on a moving sailboat - determines the driving force for sailboats.

A sailboat on three sailing points

The waves give an indication of that true wind Direction. The pennant (Canadian flag) indicates apparent wind Direction.

  • Drawn close: The pennant flows backwards, the sails are firmly drawn in.

  • To reach: The pennant flows slightly to the side while the sails are aligned with the apparent wind.

  • To run: the wind comes out from behind the ship; The sails are “wings and wings” to be at right angles to the apparent wind.

Effect on apparent wind [edit]

True wind speed (V.T.) combined with the speed of the sailboat (V.B.) to be apparent wind speed ((V.A), air speed, instrumentation or crew on a moving sailing ship. The apparent wind speed provides the driving force for the sails at a certain point on the sail. It varies from the actual wind speed of a vehicle stopped in iron in the exclusion zone to a higher wind speed than the actual wind speed as the speed of the sailing vehicle increases the actual wind speed on a range and decreases as sailing towards zero craft sails dead against the wind.[6]

Effect of apparent wind on sailboats at three sail points

Sailing ship A is pulled tight. Sailing ship B. is on a ray range. Sailing ship C. is on a wide range.
The boat speed (in black) creates an equal and opposite apparent wind component (not shown) that adds true wind to become apparent wind.

  • Apparent wind and forces on a Sailboat.
    As the boat sails further away from the wind, the apparent wind gets smaller and the lateral component gets smaller. The boat speed is highest at the jet range.

  • Apparent wind on one Sailing sleigh.
    As the ice boat sails further away from the wind, the apparent wind increases slightly and the boat speed is highest for the long distance. The sail is laid in for all three sail points.[7]

The speed of sailboats through the water is limited by the drag that results from the hull drag in the water. Ice boats usually have the least resistance to forward movement of any sailboat.[7] As a result, a sailboat experiences a wider range of apparent wind angles than an ice boat, whose speed is typically great enough to drive the apparent wind a few degrees to one side of its course, which requires sailing with the sail for most sail points. In conventional sailboats, the sails are adjusted to create lift for the sail points at which the leading edge of the sail can be aligned with the apparent wind.[6]

In a sailboat, the sail point has a significant influence on the lateral force. The higher the boat points towards the wind under sail, the greater the lateral force that will require resistance from a keel or other underwater sheeting, including a dagger, centerboard, skeg, and oar. The lateral force also creates heel formation in a sailboat, which requires resistance to the ballast weight of the crew or the boat itself and the shape of the boat, particularly on a catamaran. As the boat deviates from the wind, the side force and the forces required to withstand it become less important.[18]

On ice boats, lateral forces are counteracted by the lateral resistance of the blades on ice and their spacing, which generally prevents heels.[19]

Course under sails [edit]

Wind and currents are important factors to consider for both offshore and coastal sailing. Predicting the availability, strength and direction of the wind is key to harnessing its power along the desired course. Ocean currents, tides, and river currents can distract a sailing ship from its desired course.[20]

If the desired course is within the exclusion zone, the sailboat must follow a zigzag route into the wind to reach its waypoint or destination. Heading upwind, certain high performance sailboats can get to their destination faster by following a zigzag route over a series of long distances.

Negotiating obstacles or a canal may also require a change of direction with respect to the wind, requiring a change in tack with the wind on the opposite side of the vehicle from earlier.

Changing the turn is called Turn when the wind crosses the bow of the vehicle while it is turning and Jibing (or Gybing) when the wind goes over the stern.

Wind and currents [edit]

Winds and ocean currents are both the result of the sun propelling their respective fluid media. Wind drives the sailing ship and the ocean carries the boat on its course, as currents can change the course of a sailing ship on the ocean or a river.

  • wind - On a global scale, ships making long voyages must take into account the atmospheric circulation that creates zones of west, east, trade winds and high pressure zones with light winds, sometimes called horse-widths, in between.[21] Sailors predict wind direction and strength with knowledge of the high and low pressure areas and the accompanying weather fronts. Along the coastal areas, seafarers struggle with daily changes in wind direction - they flow from the shore at night and onto the shore during the day.[22] Local temporary wind shifts are mentioned Elevatorsin improving the sailboat's ability to travel along it Loxodrome towards the next waypoint. Unfavorable wind shifts are mentioned headlines.[23]
  • Currents - At the global level, ships making long voyages must take into account the large circulation of ocean currents.[24] Major ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic and the Kuroshio Current in the Pacific require planning of the impact they will have on a transit ship's trail. Tides also affect a ship's track, especially in areas with large tidal ranges.[25] like the Bay of Fundy or along southeast Alaska or where the tide flows through straits like Deception Pass in Puget Sound.[26] Navigators use tide and current tables to inform their navigation.[20] Before the advent of engines, it was advantageous for sailing ships to enter or leave the harbor or to go through a strait with the tide.[27]

Against the wind

A sailboat can sail on a course outside of its restricted area.[28] If the next waypoint or destination is within the arc defined by the exclusion zone from the vehicle's current position, it will have to perform a series of turning maneuvers to get there on a dog-legged route (called) hit to windward.[25] The progress along this route is referred to as well done of course;; The speed between the start and end points of the route is known as Speed ​​well done and is calculated by the distance between the two points divided by the travel time.[29] The boundary line to the waypoint, which enables the sailing ship to leave it to the slipstream, is referred to as Layline.[30] While some sailing powers can sail up to 30 ° to the wind with Bermuda rigging,[29] Most square riggers of the 20th century are limited to 60 degrees downwind.[27]Forward and backward rigs are designed so that they can be wind driven on either side, while square rigs and kites are designed so that the wind comes from only one side of the sail.

Since the lateral wind forces are highest on a sailing ship, pulled tight and hit against the wind, the resilient water forces around the keel, centerboard, rudder and other foils of the ship are also highest in order to reduce the leeway - the ship slips on the lee of his course. Ice boats and land yachts minimize lateral movement through the lateral resistance of their blades or wheels.[31]

Staple and hit against the wind
  • To pin of Starboard to pin port Thumbtack. Wind shown in red. to starboard, turn to windward to begin the turning maneuver, went to the wind; the sail loses its drive and the vehicle continues to swing, Resumption of wind power on the new port side by laying the sail, on port tack.

  • Hit against the wind with pins Starboard to port Apply to points 1 and 3 and vice versa to point 2.

Change the turn by turning [edit]

Two sailing yachts on opposite thumbtacks

To pin or come about is a maneuver in which a sailboat turns its bow in and through the wind (called the "eye of the wind") so that the apparent wind changes from side to side, allowing progress in the opposite direction.[32] The type of sailing device determines the procedures and limitations for achieving a tack maneuver. Forward and backward rigs leave their sails slack when turning; Square rigs must present the entire front surface of the sail to the wind when changing from side to side. and windsurfers have flexible pivoting and fully rotating masts that rotate from side to side.

Against the wind

18ft skiff flying a long range asymmetrical spinnaker mounted on a fuel

A sailboat can only go directly against the wind at a speed below the wind speed. However, a variety of sailboats can achieve a higher speed ahead of the wind, which is achieved by traveling a series of long distances interrupted by jibing in between. This applies to ice boats and sand yachts. On the water it was explored by sailing ships from 1975 and now extends to high-performance ships, catamarans and foiling sailboats.[33]

Navigating a canal or headwind course between obstacles may require changes of direction that require a change in tack achieved by jibing.

Changing the tack by jibing [edit]

Jibing or Gybing is a sailing maneuver in which a sailing ship turns its stern past the eye of the wind so that the apparent wind changes from one side to the other, allowing progress on the opposite side. This maneuver can be performed on smaller boats by pulling the tiller towards you (the opposite side of the sail).[32] As with tacking, the type of sailing gear determines the procedures and restrictions for jibing. Longitudinal sails with outriggers, gaffs or sprits are unstable when the free endpoints point into the eye of the wind and must be checked to avoid forcible change to the other side. Square rigs, since they present the entire surface of the sail to the wind from behind, experience little change in operation from one turn to the other. and windsurfers again have flexibly swiveling and fully rotating masts that can be turned from side to side.

Sail trimming [edit]

The most basic control of the sail is to adjust its angle relative to the wind. The control line that accomplishes this is called the "leaf". If the leaf is too loose, the sail will flutter in the wind, an event known as "teetering". The optimal sail angle can be approximated by pulling the blade in enough for the seesaw stop to occur, or by using tell-tails - small ribbons or yarn on each side of the sail that both flow horizontally to indicate a properly tailored sail. Finer controls adjust the overall shape of the sail.

Two or more sails are often combined to maximize smooth airflow. The sails are adjusted in such a way that a uniform laminar flow is created over the sail surfaces. This is known as the “slot effect”. The combined sails fit into an imaginary wing contour so that the foremost sails are more in line with the wind while the aft sails are more in line with the course being followed. The combined efficiency of this sail plan is greater than the sum of any sail used individually.

The more detailed aspects include the specific control of the sail shape, e.g.

  • Reefing or reducing the sail area in stronger winds
  • Changing the shape of the sail to make it flatter in strong winds
  • Rake the mast when going upwind (to tilt the sail back as this is more stable).
  • Providing sail rotation to accommodate wind speed differences and to shed excess wind in gusty conditions
  • gibbing or lowering a sail

Reduce sails (reefing) [edit]

An important safety aspect when sailing is adapting the amount of sails to the wind conditions. As the wind speed increases, the crew should gradually reduce the amount of sails. On a small boat with only an outrigger and mainsail, this is done by rolling up the outrigger and partially lowering the main sail. This process is known as “reefing the mainsail”.

Reefing means reducing the area of ​​a sail without actually exchanging it for a smaller sail. Ideally, reefing will not only reduce the sail area, but also reduce the sails' effort, reducing heel moment and keeping the boat upright.

There are three common methods of reefing the mainsail:

  • Plate reef, in which the sail is lowered by about a quarter to a third of its full length and the lower part of the sail with an overtaking or pre-tensioned reef line is tightened and hooked through a tingling on the new loop and a tingling on the new tack.
  • Furling in the mast (or on the mast). This method rolls the sail around a vertical sheeting, either inside a slot in the mast or on the outside of the mast. It requires a battened mainsail or newly developed vertical battens.
  • Roll reefing in the boom with horizontal film in the boom. This method allows for standard or full length horizontal battens.

Mainsail furling systems have become increasingly popular on cruise yachts because in most cases they can be operated by hand and from the cockpit. In the event of improper use, however, the sail can become jammed in the mast or in the boom slot. Mainsail furling is almost never used during the race as it results in a less efficient sail profile. The classic plate reef method is the most widely used. Furling the mainsail has the added disadvantage that its complicated equipment can add some weight in the air. However, as the size of the boat increases, the benefits of furling the mainsail reel increase dramatically.

An old saying goes, "Once you realize it's time to go to the reef, it's too late." A similar one says, "The time to the reef is when you first think about it."[34]

Fuselage fairing [edit]

The hull fairing is the adjustment of the loading of a boat in order to change its longitudinal position in the water. In the case of small boats, this is done by positioning the crew. On larger boats, a person's weight has less of an impact on the hull fairing, but can be adjusted by shifting gear, fuel, water, or supplies. Different hull trim efforts are required for different types of boats and different conditions. Here are just a few examples: For a light dinghy like a thistle, the hull should be kept straight on the intended waterline for best performance in all conditions. For many small boats, placing the weight too far back can cause drag from submerging the transom, especially in light to moderate winds. Too much weight can cause the arch to dig into the waves. In strong winds, a boat with a bow that is too low can capsize by leaning forward over its bow (pitch pole) or diving under the waves (submarine). When running in high winds, the forces on the sails tend to drive the bow of a boat down, shifting the weight of the crew far aft.

Heeling [edit]

When a ship or boat bends to one side, due to the action of waves, or the centrifugal force of a curve, or under wind pressure, or due to the number of exposed tops, it is called a "heel". A sailboat that is overwhelmed and therefore runs excessively high can sail less efficiently. This is caused by factors such as gusts of wind, crew ability, sail point, or hull size and design.

When a ship is subjected to heel force (e.g. wind pressure), the ship's buoyancy and hull jet counteract the heel force. A weighted keel provides additional means of leveling the boat. On some high performance racing yachts, the water ballast or the angle of an angular keel can be changed to provide additional righting force to counter the heel. The crew can shift their personal weight to the high side (upwind) of the boat, this is called hikewhich also changes the center of gravity and creates a righting lever to decrease the heel level. Incidental benefits include faster ship speed caused by more efficient operation of the hull and sails. Other options for reducing heel include reducing the exposed sail area and making the sail adjustment more efficient, as well as a variation of hiking known as the "trapezoid". This is only possible if the ship is designed for it, like dinghy sailing. A seaman may attempt (usually involuntarily) to turn upwind in gusts (known as Round up). This can lead to difficulty steering the ship if it is overrated. Wind can be shed from the sails by peeling or loosening them. The number of sails, their size and shape can be changed. Raising the center of the dinghy can lower the heel by allowing more leeway.

The increasingly asymmetrical underwater shape of the hull, corresponding to the increasing heel angle, can create increasing directional torque into the wind. The center of force of the sails also increases this turning effect or the force on the movement of the ship due to the increasing leverage effect with increased heel, which shows up as increased human effort required to steer a straight course. A raised heel reduces the exposed sail area relative to the wind direction, resulting in a state of equilibrium. When more heel force causes more heel, a weather helmet can occur. This condition has a braking effect on the ship, but has the safety effect that an excessively hard pressed boat will try to turn into the wind, thereby reducing the forces on the sail. Small amounts (≤ 5 degrees) weather helmets are generally considered desirable as the rudder results in a wing lift. This wing lift creates a helpful windward movement and is the result of the reason the Lee helmet is dangerous. The leeward rudder, the opposite of the weather helmet, is generally considered dangerous because when the rudder is released the ship turns away from the wind, increasing the forces on the sail when the helmsman is not in control.

Multihulls use buoyancy and / or weight away from the centerline of the sailboat to counteract wind force. This is in contrast to heavy ballast, which can be up to 90% (in extreme cases like AC boats) of the weight of a monohull sailboat. In the case of a standard catamaran, there are two similarly sized and shaped slender hulls connected by beams and sometimes overlaid by a deck structure. Another catamaran variant is the Proa. Trimarans with an unballasted central hull similar to a monohull have two smaller amas parallel to the central hull in order to withstand the lateral force of the wind. The advantage of multihull sailboats is that they do not suffer from the loss of power when carrying heavy ballast and that their relatively shallow draft reduces drag caused by friction and inertia when moving through the water.

One of the most common dinghy hulls in the world is the laser hull. It was designed by Bruce Kirby in 1969 and featured at the New York Boat Show (1971). It was designed with speed and simplicity in mind. The laser is 4.229 m long and has a 3.8 m long water pipe and 7.1 m2) of sails.

Terminology [edit]

Nautical terms for elements of a ship: starboard (right side), port or port (left side), forward or fore (front), aft or aft (aft), bow (front part of the hull), stern (rear part of the hull) , Beam (the widest part). The spars that carry sails include masts, outriggers, yards, gaffs, and poles.[35]

Rope and lines [edit]

Standing rigging (left) and running rigging (right) on a sailing boat
Sailboat at a mooring ball near Youngstown, NY, USA

In most cases, rope is the term used only for raw material. Once a section of rope is destined for a specific purpose on a ship, it is commonly referred to as a Line, as in Overtaking line or Dock Line. A very thick line is considered a Electric wire. Lines attached to sails to control their shapes are called leaves, as in Mainsheet. When a rope is made of wire, it retains its rope name, as in the case of “wire rope”.

Lines (generally steel cables) that support masts are stationary and are collectively referred to as a ship's standing rigging and individually as Shrouds or remains. The stay that runs forward from a mast to the bow is called Forestay or Headstay. Aft running stays are back day or after stays.

Moving lines that steer sails or other equipment are collectively referred to as the running rigging of a ship. Lines that raise sails are called Falling while those who hit them are called Downhauls. Lines that adjust (trim) the sails are called leaves. These are often referred to by the name of the sail they control (ex Main sheet or Cantilever blade). Sail trim can also be controlled with smaller lines attached to the front of a boom such as a cunningham. A line used to hold down the boom is referred to as a vang, or a Kicker in Great Britain. A Directional lift is used to hold up a boom with no sail tension. guys are used to control the ends of other spars such as spinnaker poles.

Lines are called with which a boat is tied up if it is standing next to it Docklines, Docking cable or Mooring lines. For dinghies, the single line from the bow is referred to as the painter. A ride is what attaches an anchored boat to its anchor. It can consist of a chain, rope, or a combination of both.

Some lines are called ropes:

  • a bell rope (to ring the bell),
  • a bolt rope (attached to the edge of a sail for extra strength),
  • a foot rope (for sailors on square riggers that they can stand on while fluting or furling the sails) and
  • a tiller rope (to hold the tiller temporarily and keep the boat on course).

Other terms [edit]

Walls are called Bulkheads or Cover, while the areas referred to as ceilings on land are mentioned Overhead or Deckheads. Floors are called Soles or Decks. The toilet is traditionally called the headThe kitchen is that galley. When lines are tied it can be referred to as made quickly or secured. However, sails in different sailing plans have immutable names. For naming the sails, see the sail plan.

Knots and line handling [edit]

The following knots are considered essential for handling ropes and lines while sailing:[36][37]

  • Bowline - forms a loop at the end of a rope or line
  • Clamp Coupling - Attaches a line to a cleat
  • Clove clutch - two half clutches around a post or other object
  • Figure eight - a stopper knot
  • Half hitch - a basic overhand knot around a line or object
  • Reef Knot - (or square knot) connects two ends of rope with the same diameter
  • Rolling trailer hitch - a friction clutch used to attach a line to yourself or another object
  • Sheet metal bending - connects to rope ends of unequal diameter

Lines and traps are usually neatly wound up for storage and reuse.[38]

Rules and regulations [edit]

Every ship in coastal and offshore waters is subject to the international regulations for the prevention of collisions at sea (COLREGS). Other similar regulations may apply to inland waterways and lakes, such as: B. CEVNI in Europe. At some sailing events, such as the Olympic Games, which are held on closed courses where no other boating is permitted, certain racing rules such as the Racing Rules of Sailing (RRS) may apply. In club racing, certain club racing rules may often apply, which may be based on RRS superimposed to the more general regulations like COLREGS or CEVNI.

In general, every sailor must do whatever the activity

  • Always keep a proper lookout
  • Adjust the speed to the conditions
  • Know whether you have to “stand” or “give in” in a situation at close range.[39]

The stand-on ship must maintain a constant course and speed, but be ready to take delayed action to prevent an actual collision if the other ship does not do so in time. The first ship must take early, positive and obvious evasive measures without crossing the other ship. (Rules 16-17)

  1. If an approaching ship remains on a stable bearing and its range decreases, a collision is likely. (Rule 7) This can be checked with a hand-held compass.
  2. The sailing ship on port[40] gives way to the sailing ship on starboard[41] (Rule 12)
  3. If both sailing ships are on the same tack, the windward boat gives way to the leeward boat (rule 12).
  4. If a port ship is unable to determine the other boat's tack, it should be ready to give in (rule 12).
  5. An overtaking ship must keep away from the overtaken ship (rule 13).
  6. Sailing ships must give way to fishing ships, those not under command, those whose maneuverability is restricted, and should avoid obstructing the safe passage of a ship whose draft is restricted. (Rule 18)

The COLREGS describe the lights that are to be displayed by ships that are underway at night or when visibility is restricted. Red and green sidelights and a white stern light are required especially for sailboats. For ships less than 7 m in length, however, these can be replaced by a flashlight or a white all-round lantern. (Rules 22 & 25)

Not only do sailors need to know the requirements for their own boat, but also all of the other lights, shapes and flags that may be displayed by other ships, such as B. fishing, towing, dredging, diving, etc. as sound signals that can be issued with limited visibility and at close range, so that you can make decisions in good time within the framework of the COLREGS if necessary. (Rules 32-37)

In addition to the COLREGS, CEVNI and / or specific racing rules that apply to a sailboat, there are also

  • The IALA International Association of Lighthouse Authorities standards for side markings, lights, signals, and buoyancy, and rules to aid safe navigation.
  • The SOLAS regulations (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea), especially Chapter V, became binding for all users of leisure boats at sea from July 1st, 2002.[42] These regulations oblige the owners and operators of boats, including sailing boats, to ensure safety. They specify the required safety equipment, emergency procedures to be followed according to the size of the boat and its sailing range, and passage planning requirements related to weather and safety.

Licensing [edit]

The license terms vary widely around the world. While a license is not required for boating in international waters, a license may be required to operate a ship in coastal or inland waters. Some jurisdictions require a license if a certain size is exceeded (e.g. 20 meters in length), others only require licenses to pilot passenger ships, ferries, or tugs. For example, the European Union issues the International Certificate of Competence, which is required for the operation of pleasure craft on most inland waterways within the Union. In contrast, the United States does not have a license but has voluntary certification organizations like the American Sailing Association.[43] These U.S. certificates are often required when chartering a boat, but are not required under federal or state law.

Competition [edit]

Sailboat races generally fall into one of two categories:

Introduction [edit]

Sailing is a varied sport with many highlights from the Olympic Games and many world championship titles to development-based campaigns for the America’s Cup to round off world races such as the Vendee Globe and the Volvo Ocean Race.

Sailboat races range from dinghy races for one person to large boats with 10 or more crew members and from small boats costing a few thousand dollars to multi-million dollar America’s Cup campaigns. The cost of participating in the high-end large boat competitions makes this type of sailing one of the most expensive sports in the world. However, there are inexpensive ways to get involved in sailing boat races, such as: These include community sailing clubs, courses offered by local recreational organizations, and some inexpensive dinghy and small catamaran classes. Under these conditions, sailing boat races can be comparable or cheaper to sports such as golf and skiing. Sailboat racing is one of the few sports where people of all ages and genders can regularly compete with each other and against each other.

The sport of sailing boat racing is governed by World Sailing with most racing formats using the Racing Rules of Sailing.

Competition criteria [edit]

Sailing regattas contain events that are defined by a combination of discipline, equipment, gender and seaman categories.


Common categories of equipment include the following tenders, multihulls, keelboats, windsailers, kite surfers, and radio controlled sailboats.


The following are the main disciplines:

  • Fleet Racing - The most common form of competitive sailing with boats sailing on a track.[44]
  • Match Racing - Two identical boats race against each other. This duel requires strategy and tactics. The first to cross the finish line wins.[45]
  • Team Racing - Two teams, usually with three boats, compete against each other. Fast races depend on excellent boat handling skills and quick tactical decisions.[46]
  • Speed ​​Sailing - Managed by the World Speed ​​Sailing Record Council
  • Surfing
  • Both windsurfing and kitesurfing are experimenting with new formats.

Most sailing events are “open” events in which men and women compete against each other on equal terms, either as individuals or as part of a team. Sailing has had women-only world championships since the 1970s to encourage participation and now hosts more than 30 such world championships each year. While many mixed-sex crews have participated in open events, mandatory mixed-sexes are now included in both Olympic (Nacra 17) and Paralympic (SKUD 18) events.

Sailor categories

In addition, the following categories are sometimes applied to events:

  • Age
  • nationality
  • Disabled classification
  • Professional sailor classification

Regatta [edit]

Most sailboat and yacht races are held in coastal or inland waters. In terms of endurance and danger to life, ocean races such as the Volvo Ocean Race, the Solo Velux 5 Oceans Race and the non-stop Solo Vendée Globe are some of the most extreme and dangerous sporting events. Not only do participants compete with little rest for days, but an unexpected storm, failure of a single piece of equipment, or a collision with an ice floe can cause the sailboat to be disabled or sunk hundreds or thousands of kilometers from search and rescue.

Equipment [edit]

When boats of different types sail against each other and are evaluated on the basis of their handicaps, which are calculated either before the start or after the finish. Most small boat races are class races or handicap races at Portsmouth Yardstick. Most yacht races, however, are carried out under handicaps. The two internationally recognized systems are IRC, ORC Club and ORCi, which are used for top events (e.g. Fastnet Race, Commodore’s Cup, Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, Bermuda Race, etc.). Other empirical handicap systems are also popular for example Performance Handicap Racing Fleet (PHRF) is very common in the US
Where all boats are essentially similar and the first boat to finish wins.

Class races can be further divided into measurement-controlled and manufacturer-controlled classes.

Manufacturer-controlled classes strictly control the production and source of the equipment. (e.g. 29er, Laser, Farr 40, RS Feva, Soling etc.)

However, it is measurement-driven classes that offer the variety of devices. Some classes use a measurement control to control the boats as precisely as the manufacturer class (e.g. 470, Contender, Star, etc.).

At the other end of the extreme are the development classes, which enable development within a defined framework. These are mostly either formula-based like the meter class or a box rule that defines key criteria such as maximum length, minimum weight and maximum sail area. (e.g. Motte (dinghy), class A catamaran, TP 52 and IMOCA 60.

Leisure sailing [edit]

Sailing for pleasure can include short trips across a bay, day sailing, coastal cruises, and longer offshore or blue water cruises. These trips can be done with one hand or the ship can be manned by families or groups of friends. Sailing ships can sail alone or be part of a flotilla with other like-minded travelers. Sailboats can be operated by their owners, who often also enjoy maintaining and modifying their craft to suit their needs and tastes, or they can be rented for the particular trip or cruise. In some cases, a professional skipper and even a crew can be hired along with the boat. People go on cruises where they are crew members and “learn the ropes” aboard ships such as tall ships, classic sailing ships and restored workboats.

Cruises of several days or longer can include a deep dive into logistics, navigation, meteorology, local geography and history, fisheries science, sailing skills, general psychological coping, and serendipity. Once the boat is purchased, it is not an overly expensive endeavor, often much cheaper than a normal vacation on land. It naturally develops independence, responsibility, economy and many other useful skills. In addition to improving sailing skills, all other normal needs of daily living must also be taken into account. There are work roles that anyone in the family can take on to contribute to a fun outdoor adventure for everyone.

A style of casual coastal cruising called gunkholing is a popular summer pastime for families. It consists of taking a series of day sails to remote locations and anchoring overnight while enjoying activities like exploring isolated islands, swimming, fishing, etc. Many nearby bodies of water on rivers, bays, sounds and coasts can very naturally become cruise areas for this type of recreational sailing. Casual sailing trips with friends and family can turn into lifelong bonding experiences.

Passemaking [edit]

Long-haul journeys such as those across oceans and between distant ports can be seen as the almost absolute province of the cruise sailboat. Most modern yachts 25 to 55 feet in length, powered solely by mechanical engines, cannot carry enough fuel for a point-to-point journey of 250 to 500 miles without the need for replenishment. A well-prepared sailing yacht of similar length can theoretically sail anywhere that its crew is ready to lead it. Even when you consider that the cost benefits are offset by a greatly reduced cruising speed, many people who travel distances in small boats will appreciate the leisurely pace and length of time on the water.

Since Joshua Slocum's solo circumnavigation in the 1890s, long-distance sailing under sail has inspired thousands of otherwise normal people to explore distant seas and horizons. The important journeys of Robin Lee Graham, Eric Hiscock, Don Street[47] and others have shown that sea voyages, while not exclusively racing, have an inherent sense of competition, especially that between humans and the elements.

Such a challenging undertaking requires in-depth knowledge of sailing in general, as well as maintenance, navigation (especially celestial navigation) and often even international diplomacy (for which a number of protocols should be learned and practiced). But one of the great things about owning a sailboat is that you can at least imagine what kind of adventure your average affordable motorboat could never manage.

See also [edit]

  1. ^Carter, Robert (March 2006). “Boat remains and sea trade in the Persian Gulf in the sixth and fifth millennium BC”. Antiquity.
  2. ^O’Connor, Tom (September - October 2004). “Polynesians in the Southern Ocean: Occupation of the Aukland on islands in prehistory”. New Zealand Geographic. 69 (6–8).
  3. ^Doran, Edwin Jr. (1981). Wangka: Austronesian canoe origin. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN.
  4. ^“Transportation and Maps” in Virtual VaultThe Art of the Boat is an online exhibition of Canadian historical art in Library and Archives Canada
  5. ^Jett, Stephen C. (2017). Ancient Ocean Crossings: Rethinking the Case for Contacts with Pre-Columbian America. University of Alabama Press. p. 177. ISBN.
  6. ^ abcJobson, Gary (1990). Championship Tactics: How Everyone Can Sail Faster, Smarter And Win Races. New York: St. Martin’s Press. pp. 323. ISBN.
  7. ^ abcde
    Kimball, John (2009). Physics of sailing. CRC Press. p. 296. ISBN.
  8. ^Batchelor, GK (1967), An introduction to fluid dynamics, Cambridge University Press, pp. 14-15, ISBN
  9. ^Klaus Weltner A comparison of the explanations of aerodynamic lift capacity At the. J. Phys. 55 (1), January 1987, p. 52
  10. ^
    Clancy, LJ (1975), aerodynamics, London: Pitman Publishing Limited, p. 638, ISBN
  11. ^
    Collie, SJ; Jackson, PS; Jackson, M .; Gerritsen; Fallow, JB (2006), “Two-dimensional CFD-based parametric analysis of sail constructions against the wind” (PDF), The University of Aucklandaccessed 2015-04-04
  12. ^
    Textor, Ken (1995). The new book of sail fairing. Sheridan House, Inc. p. 50th ISBN.
  13. ^
    Deacon, EL; Sheppard, PA; Webb, EK (December 1956), “Wind Profiles over the Sea and Resistance at the Sea Surface”, Australian Journal of Physics, 9 (4): 511, Bibcode: 1956AuJPh… 9..511D, doi: 10.1071 / PH560511