Why couldn't Rome defeat Parthia?

Caesar's failure

Caesar's failure

Period of time:

On August 9, 48 BC Chr becomes Julius Caesar in the Battle of Pharsalus beaten. Under the consulate of Gnaeus Pompey Magnus the Roman Republic will be strengthened and the Roman Empire will remain the dominant power in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East for centuries.

Roman civil war

On August 9, 48 BC it came to Battle of Pharsalus between Gnaeus Pompey Magnus and Gaius Iulius Caesar. Shortly before the start of the battle, Caesar changed the line-up of his legions. However, this was recognized by Pompey. So that this also changed his order of battle. That led to Caesar's defeat. However, Caeser managed to escape with part of his legions. By the end of 47 BC, Pompey succeeded in defeating Caeser in further battles and taking him prisoner. Caeser was born on November 23, 46 BC. chr tried in Rome for high treason and his crimes during the Gallic War. This process ended in May 45 BC. chr with Caeser's condemnation to death for high treason. However, he was granted the right to commit suicide because he came from a respected family and recognized his military successes. Caeser celebrated on May 22, 45 BC chr suicide and his family was spared. His great-nephew Octavian even received the office of proconsul in the province of Gallia. The aim was to reduce the danger he posed to Rome without humiliating him. Because Caeser had adopted him in his will and bequeathed his fortune to him.

Reform of the republic

After Caeser's death were Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus and Aulus Hirtius the consuls for the year 45 BC Reforms of the republic began under their consulate, as the civil war had shown the republic's weaknesses. As a first measure, the granting of land to veterans was now taken over by a commission and no longer by the commanders of the legions. Half of the commission consisted of senators and half of veterans. This should guarantee fair distribution. The office of dictator was not abolished however the changes were made by L. Cornelius Sulla Felix repealed, the length of a dictator's term of office was set at 6 months again. The biggest change, however, was that after the dictator ended his term in office, he could be tried for crimes committed during that time.

Roman-Egyptian War

Mark Antony a follower of Caeser managed to flee to Egypt after his defeat. At first he lived there without attracting much attention. But from 38 BC he became the mistress of the Pharoness Cleopatra VII. He helped her assert herself against her brother and become the sole pharaoh. Mark Antony succeeded in attracting so many former allies of Caeser to his side. From 31 BC onwards there was more and more conflict with the Senate in Rome. The Senate had succeeded in gaining power and solidifying the republic. The consuls of the year 31 BC Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus began planning a war against Egypt. On September 2nd, 31st BC it came at Actium to the battle between the legions Antony and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Which Agrippa could win. After the defeat, Antony fled back to Egypt and began to prepare to defend the country. However, the Egyptian soldiers were inferior to the Roman legionaries so that important cities quickly fell into Roman hands by the middle of 30 BC the Egyptian army was defeated. To avoid capture committed Antony on August 1, 29 BC suicide. Also Cleopatra committed suicide a few days later. As a result, Egypt finally became a province of the Roman Empire.

Roman expansion to Germania

Germanic raids

War in Germania


Casus Belli

Raids of Germanic tribes on Gaul



Roman conquest of the areas between the Rhine and Weser
Roman EmpireAngrivarians,


To chat,






Nero Claudius Drusus, Tiberius Claudius Nero, Publius Quinctilius VarusArminius and several tribal princes
up to 80,000 menUnknown
over 40,000 menunknown
Since the end of the Gallic War there were always attacks by Germanic tribes, especially the Sugambrer, Usipeter and Tenker on the left bank of the Rhine. They defeated Roman legions several times up to 15 BC. This repeatedly led to Roman campaigns of revenge on Germanic territories. However, this did not lead to an end to the Germanic raids. After a defeat by Roman legions against the Sugambrer was captured by these the legionary eagle. That was where Nero Claudius Drusus commissioned by the Senate a campaign against the Sugambrer respectively

Drusus campaign in Germania

Campaign of the year 11 BC

The expedition began in the summer of 11 BC first attacked Drusus the Usipeter north of the river lip at. However, there was no battle there as the people living there met Usipeter withdrawn thereupon the area was devastated by the Roman legions Usipeterian princes in their power to weaken. There were also attacks on the territory of the Sugambrer.

After these actions he let the Rhine fleet advance into the North Sea, there the Frisians voluntarily submitted to the Romans. Then Drusus conquered several islands in the region and thus consolidated the Roman position in the area. This leads to the end of the Germanic raids on Roman territory.

Campaign of the year 10 BC

Grabbed again Drusus the prayer of Usipeter who submitted to the Romans in the middle of the year. This was followed by an attack on the Sugambrer which is currently at war with the Roman-friendly To chat There were further attacks on several Germanic tribes and even the advance as far as the Weser was successful. Drusus turned back due to the poor supply situation and got into a battle against several Germanic tribes in a valley. It only succeeded with luck Drusus to prevent the total annihilation of his legions.

Campaign of the year 9 BC

At the beginning of the year the Germanic tribes were considered pacified to such an extent that they no longer posed a threat to the Roman Empire. However, in the winter of 9 BC it happened to the To chat to a change of government to an anti-Roman faction. As a result, a new spring train was necessary to avoid the danger To chat and Sugambrer to act against. Drusus succeeded in conquering several important places of the Chatti and Sugambrians. As a result, parts of the Chats submitted to the Romans. The victory over the Sugambrer succeeded Drusus However not.

Campaign of the year 8 BC

Drusus attacked the chat and later the Sueber on him succeeded in weakening both the chat and the Sueber. Then Drusus crossed the Werra and attacked the area of ​​the Cheruscans, but there was no battle because the Cheruscans withdrew. Drusus reaches the Elbe in the course of the year. He withdrew due to difficulties in the nub. Drusus died on the way back to the army camp in Mainz. His brother Tiberius Claudius Nero was then commissioned by the Senate to continue the campaign.

End of the campaign in 7 BC

In contrast to the military operations of his brother advanced Tiberius the Roman influence through diplomatic means. He succeeded Sugambrer to isolate and spend part of the resettlement on areas to the right of the Rhine. The other tribes were also bound to Rome through clever diplomatic actions. The Suebi left their original homeland and moved further east. The now free area was under the Chat, Usipeter and Tenkerer divided up. By intervening in the tribal leadership of the Romans, they finally managed to end the Germanic raids on Gaul. Tiberius a triumphal procession in Rome was permitted by the Senate for his successes.

Resistance of the Teutons

New Roman campaigns

Until 1 AD it remained quiet in Germania. It was only after the Romans tried to relocate several Germanic tribes that resistance against the Romans began to develop again. To the Roman governor Marcus Vinicius failed to master the situation. So that the Senate in the middle of 3 AD again Tiberius Claudius Nero to the governor in Germania. He started military operations against the Germanic tribes that year and achieved some success. In the following year there was another offensive by the Romans against the Germanic tribes. This represented the cathedral finance of the Romans in the area between the Rhine and Elbe. After that, the infrastructure of the area was expanded by Rome to secure their rule.

Turn in Germaninen

Under the influence of the Cheruscan prince Arminius, who had long served in the Roman army, became the tribes of the Cherusci, Martians, chatting, attackers and Brukterer united in the fight against the Romans. The governor of the province GermaniaPublius Quinctilius Varus read through Arminus, who was still officially part of the Roman army. Thus three Roman legions became in the middle of the year 8 AD in Teutoburg Forest completely destroyed by the Germanic peoples. This led to Rome losing much of its control in Germania.

Revenge of the Roman Empire