Why do brick walls crack in houses?
Many people are familiar with the expression of Faina Ranevskaya's famous poetess that in a few years there will be cracks in life, which will eventually grow over time if they are not patronized. So, if a split or a small crack appeared on the warehouse wall with an apartment building, then you urgently need to decide about this problem.
The first question that comes to mind is " What to do when the brick wall cracks?”
First of all, it is necessary to consult with a professional builder, since a person who does not even have the minimum level, which in the structure of the structure and the repair of the foundation may not know, is very difficult to understand how it is Once and for all this problem going on.
Why the brick cracked and How can you close cracks in the brick wall too? Similar masonry? These questions must be dismantled from many sides. So go ahead.
Types and causes of establishment
So far, construction companies have been offering a revolutionary durable and long lasting portland cement that resulted in a real revolution between building materials. It differs not only in its durability, but also in its instant solidification speed, which is perhaps the main title among the competitors in the field of strengthening materials.
All experienced builders are aware that immediately after the construction the building is not in short supply and its space in the main foundation has, this process is about five to ten years, and the cement solution is very quickly on the contrary gain its strength. Such a very large difference between the sedimentation and the sedimentation house can lead to the appearance of cracks and large splits, which will severely break the array of supporting masonry.
As for the solution of the lime with the additive of sand, things are so much easier. It solidifies quite slowly and at the beginning of the sediment of the foundation of empty, either by emptiness in the walls should not arise. This strengthening technology is mainly used exclusively in the construction of new houses according to today's standards, and as time shows that in new buildings there are no problems with cracks and a sediment of the foundation for a long time.
Builders - specialists divide in masonry on such signs:
- Because of what they appear: The deformation of the structure of the house, the shrinkage or temperature deduction of an apartment building;
- Exterior and interior views of the destruction on the wall: split, gap, cut;
- Direction of destruction: horizontal, vertical, inclined at different angles;
- Shape: curve, straight, closed or torn half (that is, it almost does not reach the edge of the support wall).
- Size and depth: on the surface of the wall and on the inside;
- How more difficult repair work is, what risk of wall destruction: dangerous and not dangerous;
- Time from the moment of destruction: stable or unstable;
- The size of the disclosure of the cleavage or crack: microscopic (up to one millimeter), small (up to three millimeters), medium (from four to eight millimeters), large (more than ten millimeters), very large (from fifteen millimeters or more).
Several main reasons for the appearance of such a destruction on the wall that are pretty much the word:
- Sediment or destruction of the soil itself. This problem can cause uneven natural burning of the soil (strong and weak seats), incorrect and unacceptable loading of the main foundation, spillage into the soil of a very large number of stands, as well as contaminated waterways. It is for these reasons that can result in the appearance of large indirect splinters or the formation of vertical cracks that can pick up as well as the edge of the support wall, etc.
- Strong hardening soil on which there is a house. A similar phenomenon can cause severe frosts that can cause the foundation to rise unevenly. In particular, the hardness of the soil is very dangerous for another unfinished building, the walls of which have not yet hardened and do not have the necessary sustainability. In this case, in this case, uneven and deep cracks can form in the walls, and if the soil begins to melt after winter, the reverse process can occur - the boundary of the foundation, which can lead to new damage to the walls .
- The new renovation for the support wall may be needed after a small building or room has been extended so that the foundation cannot withstand a new, additional weight.
- Uneven and non-permanent load on the basis of the house. For example, if the house is built in the modern style, then luxurious and long glazing (which are very often used very often in this architectural style, often alternated with small numb areas of the house, which will lead to a large difference in weight and precipitation of the soil .
- If the pit is located next to the building, then very high temperature regimes also affect the soil, which later can lead not only to the bottom of the soil and its excessive looseness. For these reasons, the medium-sized cracks can form on the walls.
- Excess load due to neighboring houses. On the general foundation, the zones of greatest tension are superimposed on each other and give the soil very much to settle.
- The causes can not only be in the soil itself, but also above it. For example, to collect heavy building material in large quantities, there may be additional loads and loads near the unfinished building and already in the ground, and they can cause very heavy external precipitation of the foundation and the appearance of large cracks and splits.
- Constant impact on the foundation. For example, if you drive the piles on the territory of the apartment building, heavy vehicles are constantly driving, compressors are working - it creates everything to drown the sandy soil and the strong softening of the clay masses in the ground. In the aggregate of all these factors, you can bring the sediment of the soil and cracks on the bearing walls.
- The effects of high temperatures can cause vertical cracks and crevices to form on the walls of your home. Sealing cracks in masonry is mainly necessary for longer buildings that do not have temperature seams.
- SVerdress masonry. In this case, cracks can manifest themselves between the walls and the poles. Such cracks can be determined by the characteristic cabinets and the verticality of their direction. Masonry overload. Appear in simple and pillars. A characteristic sign of crack cracks is shading and the vertical direction.
- Various non-dangerous shrinkage deformations can be observed on the public walls of the house - they may be small or small cracks, very randomly scattered throughout the surface of the wall, mainly closed, and most importantly, the fact that they do not reach the edge of the Wall. They appear due to the bumps of gypsum mortar that is too thick.
Technology seal cracks
There are many ways to make a crack in masonry:
- You can install a brick lock or an anchor lock.
- Strengthening walls with tension bolts;
- Repair of cracked steel brackets;
- Repair work in the place of unlocking the panel overlap;
- Strengthen the cracked simplicity;
- Make a hardened steel chuck;
- Install special brackets.
- Insert the plate overlap;
- Known the wall with a finishing layer.
Do you see more on this video:
Apparently, the above can indicate what it is necessary to monitor very closely the general condition of the house of building blocks. Because the crack or split is detected, you will need to spend less time and cash eliminating this problem.
More on the subject:
Most owners of private houses and cottages with external design of buildings that adhere to the latest design trend make the choice for masonry. Such a coating gives buildings a beautiful view, and also performs the function of protective and decorative and directional materials. In terms of its strength characteristics, the facing brick surpasses many end options, so in our country it is especially in demand in our country, even with a high cost of material and stamping. However, in order to maintain wear resistance - the coating must avoid such a phenomenon as cracks in relation to bricks.
Causes of cracks in masonry
Even with strict observance of the rules of construction of the house, there is a chance of the occurrence of unpleasant situations in the form of shrinkage and temperature deformation of coatings. They are the main causes of cracks in the facing surface of the brick. The deformation can lead to various phenomena:
- on the shrinkage due to the effects of moisture, as a result of which the volume, sealing and solidification of the facing coating decreases;
- to change linear dimensions with temperature compression and expansion.
The process of shrinking is natural and has usually been around for a few years. In the case of temperature deformation, however, mainly the change of seasons, the daily temperature fluctuations, affect the position of the grown walls in relation to the sides of the light. Note that the front surfaces of the walls on the sunny side of the house are more prone to linear extensions. You can prevent these phenomena by following several simple rules.
How to prevent cracks from forming in an opposite coating of a brick: 7 tips from professionals
Given the likelihood of linear shrinkage of bricks and period temperature fluctuations, to prevent the formation of cracks in the building cladding, by following the following rules:
- Maximize the straightened products before putting them on the main surface.
- Clearly follow the masonry method based on the arrangement of the so-called tychins. The method involves laying the Tonchkovy rows of one-piece elements in locations such as the top and bottom rows of the coiled structure, in straps and tucks, under beams, runs, and backing plates, and every four spoonful rows. In addition, facing masks should necessarily be used with anchors and discharge belts.
- In the process of masonry, use the reinforcing steel mesh with a diameter of 2-3 mm. Such a grid reduces the deformation load on the facing surface, thereby helping to maintain its integrity over the long term.
- Circuit of the deformation seams in the entire masonry surface, which perform functions as well as shrink and temperature seams on the inside. Their thickness should not exceed 15 mm.
- Avoid moisture from the inner brick during transport, processing and laying.
- Do not allow the walls of the building to freeze and thaw.
- In order to carry out straightened masonry with the maximum rigid solution, plasticizers and non-shaved additives, to avoid butchery products and to prevent the appearance of cracks in the process of drying the straightening surface.
Although cracks related to the brick bricks and does not affect the impact on the Carrier masonry skills, they still spoil its appearance.
How to extend the life of the masonry from the brick
In order to extend the life of the brick cladding of your house and show the possible cracks in a timely manner, the first thing to do is to inspect the directional coating to detect defects and further eliminate them. At this point, not only the external walls of the structure are carefully examined, but also masonry seams. All chips and cracks in reference brick in relation to a special sealant selected under the shade of the main material. For seams, as a rule, solutions are used, as a rule, similar to those used in the manufacture of masonry - so renovated sections of the masonry with a view to the architectural composition are not allocated.
The next stage involves cleaning brick masonry from dirt and dust, while specialists do not recommend using a wet method for this. It is better to wipe the surface with a soft, dry cloth, which will prevent moisture from entering the masonry.
In order to ensure optimal protection of masonry in the final stage, it is recommended to apply an additional protective layer - it can be a special varnish, hydrophobizers or clinker oil. Such types of coatings have long been protected from negative factors of exposure by educating your home. Even with the arrival of the pair of verses, the varnish and coloring compositions are much easier to remove and cheaper to restore than to restore the brickwork itself. At the same time, the well-groomed appearance of the building will continue to please the owner's eyes.
One of the most popular materials for building various objects is brick. However, this material is not ideal, and failure and damage may occur in buildings thereof during operation.
The most common withdrawal is cracking the wall. Correct, that such a defect isn't a lot of work. To do this, it is necessary to find out the cause of the crack and choose the necessary technological method to get rid of it.
The manifestation of cracks on the wall surfaces from the brick is a bad sign. However, if the foundation is properly relocated and properly filed, it should not be arranged.
Any visible error signals non-compliance with construction standards or use and must immediately correct the cause of its appearance. The complexity of sealing cracks in the wall surfaces depends on their thickness and depth (sometimes it is necessary to dismantle the required masonry).
You can close the crack with your own hands if you follow our recommendations. We will help you to eliminate defects (for example a cracked surface of the support wall).
Causes of Gaps
There are several reasons that create an uncomfortable problem.
- Lack of a crucial bundle between blocks. It appears in the form of a vertical crack along the entire height of the wall (it occurs when the extension structure is created on the existing building or when the correctness of the work is not observed). You can only get rid of the gap if the pre-reinforced belt is made by the reinforced belt.
- Ladies, if you lay the foundation of the building:filling the foundation for a small depth (less than the freezing of the ground), the use of granular or mineral blocks, the use of concrete with poor strength and frost resistance. External manifestations: cracks in the cracks in the areas of the corners or rising cracks in the upper parts of the wall surfaces from the brick.
You can avoid this by strengthening the foundation perimeter by making a belt out of concrete.
- Defect that defines the quality of the soilWhat errors occur when considering the load. This also includes soil deformation due to vibrations, natural phenomena (e.g. active soil waters), as well as the works near the object. All this leads to the appearance of large cracks throughout the surface of the walls.
- Reconciling deduction for the first year of operation.This shows up in the form of small and shallow gaps that are in the future, not increasing in size. To get rid of them, you only need to make insignificant repairs. . Cracks appear in the areas of greatest stress. To avoid it, it is necessary to evenly distribute the load and make the screed in the required places.
To close the crack in the wall of the brick house, you should adhere to a simple instructional instruction:
- Carefully examine the entire building, identify and eliminate the focus of cracks;
- Regularly check the condition of the wall surfaces;
- if the slightest cracks are found, then it is necessary to immediately do everything possible to prevent the spread of defects;
- when forming cracks it is necessary to calculate the necessary internal area of the slots as well as to maximize interaction with finishing means;
- after checking the walls and machining the slots, the detected cavities should be done and an external insulation (or finishing) done.
Before identifying the cause of the liberation, there is no point in doing anything to correct it.
In addition, it is necessary to conduct a permanent review of the rate of increasing cracking. For this, the slot with the identification of the spacing composition must be determined either by a concrete solution. The desired strip areas are 100 × 40 mm with a layer thickness of less than ten millimeters. There is also a simpler paper with paper. Verify that breaks should be taken every day for five weeks. In the event of problems, it is necessary to step up repairs on the basis of the construction and the assistance of a professional.
It is worth remembering that the width of the crack is more than twenty millimeters is critical. In such a situation, an auxiliary increase in the edges of the cracks and reinforcement of the brick structures is necessary. The destruction of the region must dismantle.
If after checking that the crack has stopped increasing, you can use the simple procedure of sealing the slot in the brick wall.
Methods of fixing cracks
It is worth remembering that the appearance of the vertical debris width of ten millimeters is the harbinger of the destruction of the walls of the structure. The repair of this crack cement mortar without solid metal tracks therefore does not work. There are several repair options in this regard.
- Paralyzes special anchors.metal in a dowel, which is mounted along the edge edges.
- Assembly of longitudinal metal brackets with bends on the edgeswith pre-made holes in the wall surfaces (later they should be raised with cement mortar). This method is easiest and most reliable if it is fixed by slots from the outside of the slots.
- Hardening of masonry from the inside with special fastening compounds.When mounting fasteners in the wall surface, they must be made at a greater depth (more than half the total thickness of the wall). Alternating fasteners are allowed. In practice, the sealing of the slots in the wall surfaces from the brick is made after the installation of fixing structures.
- Use of reinforcement meshif desired, if necessary, strengthen the entire area of the structure, since even the careful calculation of the foundation does not guarantee the absence of shrinkage on the risk. When choosing a method and material for eliminating cracks, it is necessary to take into account the impending exterior. All parts made of metal material are processed against corrosion against corrosion corrosion, and painting is embarrassing either with plaster of paris.
What should one close cracks?
The compositions for slots slots depend on the location of the defects (inside, outside the house or even under the window). Inside the room, it is possible to scrape the crack on the basis of plaster of paris or a mixture of lime and cement. For outdoor installation, it is better to choose the most resistant moisture-proof materials (otherwise the finish will take a long time).
- For smaller cracks (Less than five millimeters wide) is a repair with a solution of cement. If in situations the shrinking microscopic cracks do not exceed a millimeter, they are better to curl epoxy.
- For defects with a length of five to ten millimetersthe seal can be made of cement and sand in a ratio of 1: 2 or 1: 3, to achieve a plastic consistency, it is necessary to add water.
- For problematic cracksin the wall structures of the brick (as well as in the structures with an air layer) the foam is a great solution. Such a material requires mandatory protection from sunlight, so after freezing the excess foam is removed.
- For defects of various typescement composition is suitable with the addition of polymers from the category M400. The compositions are passed through a small grid with a small sand or carpenter glue based on polyvinyl acetate and water. PVA in such cases becomes redundant (from a liter on the bucket), adding to the latter.
- For problematic wall locations(from the inside or outdoors) You can use the silicone based sealant. The advantages of such a fund can be due to the plasticity and long service life of the material, tolerance to changes in temperature and humidity, the convenience of climbing cracks with the help of an assembly gun. The disadvantage of this method is a large financial cost, so it does not suit large areas and volumes.
- If necessary, eliminate external defectsand with the presence of an outdated solution, mixtures are used with the addition of brick crumbs.
At the end of the repair, it is necessary to carefully check the condition of the brick surfaces for two months.
The reasons that lead to the appearance of cracks on brick houses, a huge set. This is unexpected seismic activity and mechanical damage and failure in construction. For example, cracks may appear due to improper strapping of the brick masonry of the bearing walls of the house. What if the crack in the brick house wall has already appeared? In any case, the house needs both superficial, cosmetic and thorough repair with the elimination of the causes of the damage, if they appeared due to the violation of construction technology. If it does not reinforce the base and walls of the house in a timely manner, a small gap can provoke the stamps of the bearing design and the irreversible load on the house.
Causes of damage to walls
You can distinguish several main reasons by which the flaw from which a slit in the wall can appear:
- Normal natural sediment of the house for more than 1-2 years (the choice of foundation is likely to be based on a certain type of soil) and natural displacements are of great importance.
- Sailing and further cracking of the foundation due to the regular washing of groundwater or poorly distributed load that results in a sloping piece per point.
- Foundation freezing and further destruction after the next change in the temperature regime.
- Heavy load on masonry. In such circumstances, cracks appear not only on the walls, but also on the pillars. A distinctive feature of cracks that appeared due to excessive pressure is the mooring of the direction and closure.
- Violation of filling technology on the stage design of the construction of the house of the house, poor quality material and its incomplete drying.
Strengthen the foundation.
Serious problems with the integrity of the structure include carrying out the overall restructuring of the foundation:
Strengthening the base of the house
- First, on the wall with a crack at the level of the horizon of the city, you need to make a deep trench. The width of the trench should no longer be the thickness of the foundation.
- After that, the crack needs to expand slightly, clean them of the weakly attached stones and the clutch of their cement.
- The expanded and cleaned area is twisted under the horizontal and vertical connections. Fit reinforcement bars are required to go overboard with anchors and secure their welding. The distance between the prudes depends on how big the crack is to be eliminated. This reinforcement is made as another bundle with a skeleton of a new reinforcement base.
- Now you can make a formwork and concrete pour it into it. To prevent new cracks, all work with the base is carried out only after it has dried. You can also bring it with water with water sometimes so that the harmony takes place evenly.
The speed solution will be for a very long time - no less than a month, only after that time that the platform will stamp and create a break.
These events make it possible to stop the destruction of the walls, and only after they can directly eliminate defects.
Elimination of defects.
Reconstruction of a brick wall
After strengthening the foundation, cosmetic waterproofing in brick walls. To ensure that new cracks are no longer predictable, it is worth damaging the paper in places and monitoring their integrity. If the sheet of paper does not break, you can begin its recovery.
Small, shallow cracks can be sealed with a cement solution, which has previously removed their edges and tapped with a hammer-stable piece of material and an adhesive solution. In order for the adhesion to be more permanent with the new solution, it is necessary to moisten the edges of the crack water. The average slots should be chopped with a mixture of sand and cement (3: 1 ratio).
Large cracks are soulful
Reinforcement with plates
To get rid of large (more than 1-2 centimeters wide) connectors, you have to do a lot more operations, more on which it is said below.
First you need to completely dismantle the entire area with a crack, starting from the top rows. All unstable and destructive bricks must be replaced with new ones. During the laying of new brick masonry, it is necessary to reinforce it. If the break occurred in the node of the brick walls, then the reinforcement can be made with a strip steel overlay, reducing the ends on the masonry side and fixing the bolts.
A - installation of a brick lock; B - brick castle with anchor; Amplification of plates with clamping bolts (in - smooth wall; G - the angle of the wall); d - repair through steel cracks with steel brackets; E - overlapping repairs in the place of the restoration plate; Well, the stronger strengthening of the cunning single family. 1- brick wall; 2 crack; 3 friendly lock; 4 cement mortar; 5 is a second bolt; 6 slave (anchor); 7 - steel cushion; 8 - brackets (installation step 50 cm); 9 - plate overlap; 10 - contemporary brick; 11 - corner; 12 - final layer.
If there is no way to make a dismantling of the wall, then the sealing of cracks in the brick walls is carried out by throwing rubble into large crevices with cement mortar and reinforcing the metal strip fastened by anchors.
If the cracks threatened the integrity of the building, then it is necessary to complete the capital increase of the wall. On the perimeter of the house there are steel bars from an outside and inside. As a result, it exposes a kind of powerful steel belt that covers the entire building.A, B - steel shear on the outer (a) and inner (b) sides of the wall; B - the installation of unusual heavy chambers; 1 - steel traction; 2 soldiers; 3 - steel reference plate; 4 - swell.
If the crack is too deep, you can also use the cement injection method: for this, the inch holes are laid along the entire length of the crack, separated by a distance of 15-20 cm. The tube filled with cement mortar is placed in the hole, and using a gasket or a special construction syringe, the solution is injected into a crack to fill it with itself.
The injection method
In addition, to fill the space of large cracks, some developers use the mounting foam. To do this, it is blown deep into the crack, dried and fixed outside the cement.
Sometimes slits and breaks are so catastrophic that the wall sticks out. In such cases, it is also necessary to strengthen the wall from the inside. To do this, it is necessary to deeply moisten the gap, fill the formed cement and rubble, the formed and installed metal lining, which is fixed by anchors. After the solution moves, you can complete the inner part of the sealing wall.
So, repairing cracks in brick walls is an important and challenging task that involves great physical and substantial expense. Nevertheless, if you do not close such defects in a timely manner, the house will soon turn irretrievably or deform.
First of all, it is necessary to understand the nature and nature of the defects that cause the destruction of the final layer.
Cracks are considered the most common defect. However, a no less serious problem is shooting. They can be caused as a violation of construction technology and the low quality of the material itself.
Stops and ways to fight them
Pickups ("Dutiks") are called small funnels and appear on the brick surface, in the middle of which there are often small granules for negative lime. It is mistakenly called chips, but this is a misnomer because the chip is of mechanical origin and gunfight occurs as a result of poor grinding of raw materials.
The process of making a brick involves grinding the clay mass. It often contains lime particles which with bad turbines turn out to be in the finished product. In the case of water from the solution, precipitation or thawing after frost, a gentle lime reacts and the carbon dioxide released during the process causes the material to be absorbed. This leads to the fact that the surface loses an attractive appearance. Large numbers of such granules in the structure can lead to the destruction of the entire tensile layer. Usually shooting manifests itself after the first winter.
There are several ways to solve this problem:
- hydrophobic treatment;
- repairs by setting defects;
- varnish coating;
- laying the directional layer from scratch.
Since the cause of shooters is the low quality material, when choosing a face brick it is necessary to carefully examine it for the presence of lime-lime-lime, and also familiarize yourself with documents confirming that the products comply with GOST 530-2012 .
In the overwhelming majority of cases, the formation of cracks in relation to brick indicates a violation of the construction work. Usually their appearance is caused by the deformation of the base of the house, when the foundation loads exceed allowable values.
In general, the reasons for the formation of cracks are quite a few, so it is necessary to find out about them based on a specific case. For example, one of them can be a laying of technical communication through drunk trenches under the foundation of the structures that have already been built. This leads to a determination of the part of the foundation and a decrease in its strength, and the deflection in this case can cause destructive stresses in the wall.
Cracks on the face brick: causes of formation
The appearance of subtle cracks called filament or hairline cracks on a brick is most likely caused by uneven natural shrinkage in the home. There is no cause for serious unrest, but renovation is necessary to install lighthouses and see benefits. If they are missing, defects can close, close and forget.
When the disclosure of cracks increases, the reason for it increases more often in the foundation, and if it is arranged without preliminary design calculations, it is not worth it and doubt.
The main flaws in the design that lead to the formation of cracks on the face brick are:
- incorrect selection of the type of foundation;
- insufficient width and shallow depth of the base marrow;
- poor quality or late fulfillment of the basic strength;
- insufficient waterproofing or the absence of a sandy pillow under the foundation;
- lack of deep drainage in the construction of houses with basement floors;
- arrangement of the basement without relevant stronger structures;
- incorrect device or lack of an aircraft system.
To get rid of cracks on the surface of bricks, it is first necessary to get rid of the cause of their formation. Only then can you proceed directly to the elimination of the gaps.
Ways to get rid of cracks
In practice, the inner brick is most often stuck above and below the doors and windows, as well as at the corners of the houses. However, regardless of where the locations of the cracks are, their disclosure should be measured before repair work. Cement sand solution is used for repairs, mixed in a proportion of 1: 2 and the assembly foam. The technology directly depends on the dimensions of the defect:
- 1-5 mm - The edges of the crack are neatly knocked down by a hammer or a small cut with a meal equipped with a disc-disc. Using the spatula, the slot is cleaned of sand particles and dust and then moisture-permeable, for example by a household sprayer. After that, carefully fill the gap with a solution than deeper.
- 5-12 mm - also knocked down and cut the edges of the gap, remove the garbage and dust, slightly moistened with water and fill with the mounting foam. After the freezer section, remove the protruding sections of the foam and gently close the gap with a solution.
- 12 mm and more - subject to the elimination of the causes of their formation, the repair is carried out similar to the procedures described, and after additional tightening elements that can be installed independently. Before they are assembled, the disputes, in depth and width corresponding to the thickness and width of the steel belt, are made, and in its edges they make holes for the subsequent fastening of the element to the wall with anchor bolts. After installing tightening plates, the shoes and cracks are filled with a solution and level the wall.
In order to effectively eliminate cracks on the internal bricks and prevent the formation of new defects, it is necessary to determine as accurately as possible the reasons for this phenomenon. It is recommended that warning and preventive measures are recommended, not to skimp on design and technical documentation, as well as to eliminate even minor errors that can affect the reliability and strength of the building structures.
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