What are human goals
[engl. goal, target], [EM], the possible and necessary specification of a final state or end product for a directed action or the result of a specific service (goal setting methods). Goals are pivotal points in controlling human activity. You determine the current recording, execution, change and termination of actions and the subsequent evaluation of the results. The formation of goals can be stimulated by external target specifications as well as the result of internal processes that run consciously or unconsciously. Once goals have been set, goals control the course of action with regard to the desired result. Feedback in the course of action enables action to be corrected on the way to achieving the goal. Feedback reports support your own assessment of the outcome of the action. If necessary, the course of action and the aim of action can be corrected. Particularly in the case of longer courses of action, there is a strong bond with the set goal (Goal retention) for a persistent effort to reach the goal despite possible resistance and distractions. If the actor realizes that his goal cannot be achieved due to unforeseeable events even with the greatest effort, it can be advantageous to break away from the original goal and replace it with another (Replacement of goals). After completing a goal-oriented action, the result is assessed as success or failure. Associated with this is i. d. Usually a cause attribution in which the results of the action are attributed to internal or external, stable or changeable causes (causal attribution). If several goals are recognized as personally important at the same time, conflicting goals can arise which, in extreme cases, lead to psych. Malfunctions. When acting in groups, personal goals and group goals must be harmonized so that no goal conflicts arise when pursuing goals. A goal-oriented course of action in a group task is guaranteed if the personal goals were known and i. S. of the group goal were related to each other.
[AO], originally the prerequisites and effects of objectives in work motivation research i. As a rule, the general motivational processes (motivation) to improve work performance through incentive systems (incentives), through participation and work structuring are examined. A comprehensive research program was launched after the publication by Locke et al. (1982) initiated in which the pos. Effect of goal setting on job performance for all 42 jobs analyzed. From the models of motivation research, the principles of the creation of goals (motive times situation) as well as the conditions that lead to goal commitment could be made usable for the “work action” to improve the human-work interaction. Target focus, process focus and result focus.
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