Bipolar people get paranoid

How does bipolar disorder arise?

Metabolic disorders in the brain can be involved in the development of bipolar disorders.

As a person affected or a relative, you may be wondering whether the occurrence of bipolar disorder could have been prevented. But it's unlikely you could have done anything about it, because so far not even they are causes of bipolar disorder clarified in every detail.

Science assumes that several factors are involved in the development of bipolar disorder: On the one hand, one plays hereditary predisposition an important role to come to another biological factors as the cause. The brain messengers involved in the transmission of nerve impulses, serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), are in an imbalance, so there is one Metabolic disorder in the brain in front. In those affected, the activity in the so-called limbic system also seems to be changed, the brain area in which feelings are processed.

What can trigger bipolar disorder

One possible explanatory model for the onset of bipolar disorder is that Ā»Vulnerability-Stress-ModelĀ«. Accordingly, certain genetic and biological requirements must be met that the susceptibility (Vulnerability) increased for stressful situations. Environmental factorsFor example, great family or work stress and stressful events such as death or job loss can trigger bipolar disorder under these circumstances. Personality traits, for example a severely reduced self-esteem, are also discussed as a possible factor in the development of the disorder. Ultimately, there are various factors that can work together to promote an outbreak of the disease.

How are bipolar disorder characterized?

People with bipolar disorder experience extreme mood swings. These range from exuberant euphoria to devastating discouragement. In between, many sick people also experience phases of normalcy. Some alternate between manic and depressive phases several times a year, others cannot get out of their low or high mood for months. There are also mixed phases in which manic and depressive symptoms occur at the same time. Since the forms and courses of bipolar disorder are so individually different, the clinical picture is not always easy to recognize.

What are typical symptoms of a manic phase?

In the manic phase, many affected people feel great, daring, creative and euphoric. You come across as high-spirited, cocky, and overly enterprising. Most of them need significantly less sleep than usual, but they feel more inclined to have sex. Some suddenly dress conspicuously and inappropriately, are distant in society, laugh, gesticulate and talk a lot. For friends and relatives, this behavior is strange and often embarrassing.

A high willingness to take risks, irritability and aggression are further possible symptoms of a manic phase, as well as excessive shopping and increased alcohol and drug consumption.

In particularly severe cases you can psychotic symptoms occur, that is, the bipolar patient perceives his environment in a distorted way, hears voices or suffers from limitless overestimation of himself (megalomania).

In the mild form of mania - doctors speak of one here Hypomania - the same symptoms occur as in mania, but much less pronounced. Hypomania can be a harbinger of mania and should therefore be clarified therapeutically as quickly as possible.

What are typical symptoms for the depressive phase?

The depressive phase is characterized by depressed mood, lack of interest and lack of drive. Those affected tire quickly; everyday life is exhausting and stressful for them. They have trouble concentrating on one thing and are more forgetful than usual. In addition, their self-confidence is down. Many plague self-doubt and inappropriate guilt. You brood a lot and withdraw from the social environment, fear and pessimism spread and sleep disorders are also common in the depressive phase. Other bipolar patients stay in bed all day and sleep a lot. Physical symptoms, such as sweating, pain, weight gain or loss, can also be associated with depressive episodes.

In addition to the manic and depressive phases, many sufferers also experience so-called Mixed states or mixed episodes. During these phases, symptoms of both mania and depression occur either simultaneously or in rapid alternation within a few hours. This combination of increased activity and depression poses a danger for those affected because they are more likely to put their thoughts - including those of suicide - into practice than predominantly depressed people.

Different symptoms of bipolar disorder:

  • increased activity, need to talk, restlessness
  • increased creativity, inventiveness, thought leaps
  • social disinhibition, ruthlessness
  • Overconfidence
  • Lack of interest, lack of drive, indecision
  • Self-doubt, suicidal thoughts
  • Anxiety
  • Sleep disorder, loss of appetite